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Transcript of Undocumented Immigrants
- a foreign-born person who lacks the rights to be in a certain country, who enters without inspection or overstays a visa or other status
- the migration of people across national borders who stay in a country without the proper documentation to do so
Two Polarized Viewpoints
Fallacies are typical errors in reasoning
1) reasons that seem logical but don't necessarily support the conclusion
2) statements that distract listeners from the real issue
Should Undocumented Immigrants Have Rights in Canada?
What do you think of when you hear the term 'Human Rights'?
Evaluating the Arguments
Social Work Values and Principles
Pertinent Information from The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
Before entering Canada, a foreign national must apply for a visa
If a foreign national would like to remain in Canada for an extended period they must apply to become a permanent or temporary resident
Action can be taken against them if they break the conditions of their visa (e.g. working in Canada without a workers permit), if they are found guilty of breaking a law, their refugee protection has been revoked, or they are found to be breaking any other aspect of The Immigration Act
(The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, 2014)
Immigration Laws in Canada
Officers of the Canadian Boarder Service Agency (CBSA) are permitted to arrest and detain individuals or deny entry into Canada if they are, or are suspected to be:
violating the Immigration and Refugee Act of Canada.
are a danger to the public
acting as a imposter
there is a reason to believe they won't appear for immigration proceedings
they are found to be inadmissible into Canada
(Auditor General of Canada, 2008)
- "human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible."
a person is attacked on a personal quality that is irrelevant to the issue under discussion
- ex. "they don't even speak English"
- irrelevant to whether they have rights or not
(attacking the person)
states that if one event occurs, then others will follow, usually in an inevitable and uncontrollable way
- ex. "We have an immigration process for a reason. If we start making exceptions to it we are welcoming border hopping and inviting criminals to walk into our communities."
a way of distorting and exaggerating an opponent's argument
- ex. "So you're saying just open the borders completely and let everyone have free health care and free education."
Appeal to Pity
to make a claim on the basis of insufficient information
- ex. all undocumented immigrants are criminals
- ex. all undocumented immigrants are refugees
when someone argues that others should follow a course of action or hold a certain belief for no other reason than that they should feel compassion for the claims of the speaker
polarizing a situation by presenting only two alternatives
often presents one conclusion as perfect while the other is seen as disastrous
- ex. do undocumented immigrants have rights?
No official or reliable statistics available on undocumented immigrants in Canada because of their "invisibility"
literature based on inductive reasoning
Canadian Boarder Service Agency is not forthcoming with statistics on numbers of people who are deported or number of people who are awaiting deportation
- Economic Burden
Government resources and taxpayers
Takes jobs away from Canadian residents
- Negative impact on national culture and cohesion
Racism, prejudice, stereotyping
- Concern for the safety of Canadian citizens
Through possible involvement in drug trafficking and gang violence.
- Contribution to society
- Enhances the cultural mosaic
Acculturation and transition
- Allows escape from unsafe circumstances
Includes: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, political turmoil,
warfare, economic hardship
Effects: women, men and children
Undocumented immigrants are criminals and
do not have any rights to our Canadian resources.
Undocumented Immigrants place a burden on
Canadian society and there are not enough resources
to supplement all of their needs.
: Everyone has the right to basic human needs and Canadian society should provide services to everyone no matter what their circumstances.
: There are stipulations within the laws and regulations that place limitations on who is helped and who can help.
Value 1: Respect for Inherent Diginity and Worth of Persons
Value 2: Pursuit of Social Justice
Value 3: Service to Humanity
Value 4: Integrity of Professional Practice
Value 5: Confidentiality in Professional Practice
Value 6: Competence in Professional Practice
Marta is a 27-year old female from Belize. She has been in Canada for 14 months and works as a live-in domestic aid. Marta starting working for a new family 3 months ago, but has been experiencing emotional and physical abuse by her employers. She is afraid to reach out and ask for help because she has no immigration documents and knows that if she goes to the police she will be deported. As a social worker, you meet Marta at a drop-in community support group for survivors of domestic violence. She approaches you afterward and asks if she could meet with you to discuss her situation sometime. You say "definitely", give her your contact information, and invite her to stop by whenever she can. She comes by your office three days later and discloses her true situation.
1. What ethical and legal issues are raised by this case?
2. What are some issues confronting Marta?
3. What strategies may be needed to help her?
4. What about her immigration issue? Do you think she is eligible for immigration status?
5. How could you advocate for her best interest despite her fear of deportation?
6. What collaborations would enhance your work with Marta?
1. Is the argument valid (is the syllogism logical?)
If someone is an undocumented immigrant in Canada (A), then they are avoiding unsafe living conditions in their country of origin (B).
Ella is an undocumented immigrant. (A)
Therefore, Ella is avoiding unsafe living conditions in her country of origin (B).
2. Are the major and minor premise true and accurate; are there any assumptions?
The major premise is not true and accurate
. Not all undocumented immigrants are here to avoid unsafe living conditions.
Yes, there is an assumption that all undocumented immigrants are avoiding unsafe living conditions.
3. Does the conclusion come from true premises that are stated in the correct form?
No, the major premise (Undocumented immigrants are avoiding unsafe or unsatisfactory living conditions) is not true
Example: Undocumented immigrants are an economic burden to Canadians because they do not pay taxes.
1. Is the evidence you are using to support your claim reliable and accurate?
No, a lot of information that states undocumented immigrants don't pay taxes comes from the media or unreliable 'experts'
2. Are your conclusions consistent with the majority of evidence?
The majority of evidence in more reliable sources suggests that many immigrants pay multiple forms of Canadian taxes.
3. Are you using the most current research from credible sources?
Originally, no. However, the conclusion was adjusted.
4. Is your argument based on strong evidence? Consider how people with other beliefs may refute your argument and strengthen that area of your argument.
Evaluating a Deductive Argument
Evaluating an Inductive Argument
How Would Your Approach Differ?
Knowing that Marta has a 7 year old son who does not attend school, have access to medical attention, and is subject to abuse by Marta's employers.
Does/Should your approach as a social worker change when there is a child at risk?
What does this mean for Marta? Do you have a duty to report?
What Would You Do?
(A Case Study Exercise)
By Chalaine Senger
Canada. (2014). Illegal Immigrant. Retrieved from http://www.mamillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/illegal-immigrant
Canada. (2014). Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (SC 2001, c 27). Retrieved from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/I%2D2.5/
Canada. Office of the Auditor General. (2008). Report of the Auditor General of Canada to the House of Commons, May 2008. Retrieved from Office of the Auditor General of Canada website: http://www.oag.bvg.gc.ca/internet/English/parl_oag_200805_07_e_30703.html
Canada. (2014). Undocumented Immigration. Retrieved from www.nolo.com/dictionary/undocumented-immigrant-term.html
Canada. (2014). United Nations Human Rights. Retrieved from http://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/pages/whatarehumanrights.aspx
Chang-Muy, F., & Congress, E.P. (Eds.). (2009). Social Work in Immigration and Refugees: Legal Issues, Clinical Skills, and Advocacy. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.
Diestler, S. & Mahy, C. (2010). Becoming a Critical Thinker: A user friendly manual. Toronto, Ont: Pearson Education Inc.
Denotations & Connotations for 'Illegal'
Denotations & Connotations for 'Undocumented'
The issue of undocumented immigrants and their rights within Canada is complex and everyone's circumstances will vary.
Therefore, we must remember to avoid committing common fallacies such as polarizing viewpoints and assuming that one must adhere to one and only one conclusion about an issue.