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Plug-in Urban Design
Transcript of Plug-in Urban Design
The Skywalk System. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
(1959- the present; planned completion 2015)
The Minneapolis skywalk system consists of pedestrian walkways that link the interiors of buildings in the office and retail core of the city at the second story level.
In 1959, the Minneapolis City Planning Department commissioned him and an architect, Ed. Baker to develop a plan for such a system.
The links are not for retail purposed, they are just link between places.
The links must be at least 3. 6 metres(12feet) wide and no wider that 8.27 metres(27 feet) and they need enclosure for air-condition.
The number of skyways grows up rapidly and increase of 62 in 2002. In the mid of 2002, the government unveiled the final phase of the plan focusing on completing the remaining links by 2015.
Escalators at the corners of each block at street level would provide easy access to the elevated walkways
vivid the 2nd level for commercial and retailing behaviors
the usage of the city's bus system has increased
it's convenient for pedestrian especially in winter
the stores at 1st level affected and then closed
separates middle-class people and the poor thus creating a dual downtown society
The riverwalk known as Paseo del Rio is a pioneering example of a conciously designed riverfront park integrated with the buildings around it.
Paseo del Rio, San Antonio,
A riverside walkway
1939-41, 1962 to
the present and continuing
The improvements and redesign of the walkway acted as a catalyst for the building of hotels(eight in all), local shops and restaurants(Casa Rio was the first) along the river.
Some of the buildings that backed on the river have been turned around to face it but the backs of others have simply been tidied up and act as a reminder of the former status of the river, Other buildings changed their use.
The plugged-in elements include the Hyatt Hotel, whose base and atrium acts as a link to the Alamo, the Convention Center, and River Center(a shopping complex).
Riverwalk has proven to be a major asset to the city. Nine million people a year use it and it's estimated to contribute $800 million to San Antonio's $3 billion tourist industry each year.
Plug-In in the Infrastructure
Binding Precincts into Units
The physical links binding precincts into coherent, identifiable units take many different forms. Most likely, they are streets, pedestrian ways, green-belts, bicycle paths, skyway links and underground passages.
focus on the strategy building of infrastructure components of a city
There are 3 types of plugging in the infrastructure above fig. Skyway, riverside walkway and underground pedestrian network.
What is Plug-in urban design ?
Plug-in urban design refers to the design and construction of the infrastructure of a development site to bind it into a unit and as an incentive for individual owner-builders or property developers to invest in new buildings.
Strategic Investments as Catalysts
Aranya township, Indore, India
a site and services scheme(1983-96)
The scheme was created for a project population of about 9 people per household making of a total of 63,000 people.
The target population included
- 65% low-income and 35% higher income.
1. To ensure a fine living environment,
2. To create a sense of community,
3. To deal with the hot arid climate
4. To create an efficient, cost-effective armature into
which individual building could be plugged
5. To provide啊a way of life for low-cost areas in
India. Encouraging activities of neighbourbourhood
in the street, arid areas, and on the flat roof of buildings.
The latrines are at the back of the lots, because they dislike it located in front of the buildings.
Essentially a gridiron plan, it is arranged in a modified concentric pattern to create a mosaic of income-segregated sub-areas that build up into an integrated whole.
The site layout make it possible to reach the core from the periphery of the site in a 10-minutes walk. Working places are integrated into the plan. Much small-scale retail, commercial and industrial activity takes place in the streets and in the houses.
It was anticipated that the houses would be built to have a verandah facing the street, a room with the kitchen behind it and the latrines in the back.
A second floor could then be tacked on.
5 objectives dictated the design:
With a population growth of 5% a year in the early 1960s, and contemporaneously
with the excitement generated by the design
and development of Brasília, the municipality
felt that a new plan was needed and organized a competition to generate ideas for what the city should be.
Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA
School as a catalyst for precinct revitalization(2000-2002)
master planning and plug-in urban design (1965–98)
The Agache plan had proposed that growth should take place in a concentric manner from the centre out. A zoning map was drawn up accordingly.
The integrated transportation network following the 1965 plan.
The winning scheme of
Brazilian Jorge Wilheim proposed that growth should take place in a radial, linear manner spreading out from the centre so that transportation routes could be 銅the和most easily be integrated with new development.
A community centre – a ‘citizenship street’ – plugged into the transportation system
The transportation infrastructure in Curitiba
(a) A conceptual diagram
of a transfer terminal
(b) the trinary traffic system in the structural avenues
The so-called ‘above-ground underground system’ has attracted great international attention.
The separate express bus lanes and the ‘tubular stations’ with platforms, enable passengers to enter a bus without climbing up steps and having already paid for the trip do operate much as in a subway system.
Over the last decade, the planning process in Curitiba has run into problems.
Many politician and a diversity of citizens groups are calling for change.
The question now being asked is: ‘How do we move ahead?’ The city can rest on it
laurels, but in a few years its infrastructure will start to decay and what has been
achieved will be largely forgotten. New ways will have to be devised to develop the city’s competitive advantage over its rivals.
The Jubilee Line extension, London, UK
an underground rail link as a catalyst for urban revitalizaition(1974-2000)
Many civic authorities and politicians now recognize the importance of the quality of the built environment in attracting private investment and middle-class residents. Chattanooga is a city that comes to the realization.
the light-rail to the Docklands from the city has a capacity of 27,000 passenger a day (completed in 1987) There are 50,000 working population with a substantial number of other visitors to the site each day.
Chattanooga city hall sets up K-5 magnet school downtown. This object made about 400 students be bused out of Chattanooga to suburban schools.
To attract good staff and good students, the universities need to be located in pleasant settings with good community facilities.
Expo '92 Seville, Spain:
a world's fair (1976-92)
Battle Academy has been built as a catalyst for attracting the additional residential population. Other incentives used to induce the middle income to live in the city are the creation of cultural facilities in the area.
Designing the basic infrastructure – streets, a reticulated water supply system, sewers, electricity and communication systems – is very much the basis for urban development.
They have to be easily plugged into by assorted pavilions that designed by a variety of architect striving to out do each other in attracting attention.
The infrastructure also has to provide a pleasant circulation space for the pedestrians(i.e. efficient, comfortable and interesting)
Ambasz’s scheme (see Figure 10.19) drew water from the river into three large pools/lakes around which wharf were located, providing linkages into all the Park’s infrastructure systems. He envisaged the exhibitors having their pavilions built on barge and moved along the river to plug-in to the site for the duration of the Fair.
Julio Cano Lasso, who was given the instruction to merge ideas from the competition-winning schemes, and assembled the implemented design (see Figure 10.20). The scheme was inward looking but linked to the city by a number of new bridges designed by such major figures as Santiago Calatrava.
铜The plug-in design encourage dynamic activities within an urban area
Making a high accessibility between precinct has encourage the use of public transportation
Reduce the difference between two areas within metropolitan, making a new balance.
Plug in of open spaces within residences area encourages activities happened in the street and neighbourhood
However, linking infrastructure between urban and rural area might bring an impact to the rural area. As transportation ( for instance, a metro line) might obstruct boundary of a rural neighbourhood and increase insecurity.