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Chemistry

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Issa Areja

on 8 May 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry

Earth's Crust Chapter 26
Chemistry in the Environment Earth's Atmosphere Earth's Water Cycles in the Environment The Sun The sun shines on the surface of oceans and lakes, heating molecules of water. the more the sun heats the molecules, the faster they move, or evaporate. The sun is the driving force of the water cycle. The Water Cycle Solar radiation causes liquid water to evaporate into a gaseous state. The resulting water vapor rises in the atmosphere and cools. Evaporation carbon dioxide is .03% of the Earth's atmosphere
carbon dioxide is removed from the air through photosynthesis Condensation The changing from water vapor to liquid water. When water vapor evaporates, it gathers in the atmosphere and creates clouds. Then, the water in the cloud condenses, and eventually falls back to earth as precipitation. Precipitation The water in the clouds fall to the ground, commonly as rain. It is how the water stored in the atmosphere gets distributed to the ground. Mantle The crust is where living things reside. Crust Limestone Outer Core Inner Core Dissolved carbon dioxide is converted to limestone. Once exposed, it begins to erode by the bodies of water and the carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. The mantle is the source of magma and volcanic lava. The outer core is a magma like liquid layer that goes around and creates the Earth's magnetic field. Last layer of the Earth. its a solid sphere made out of metal. Greenhouse Effect the natural warming of the Earth's surface that occurs when certain gases in the atmosphere absorb some of the solar energy that is converted to heat and reflected from Earth's surface Global Warming the rise in global temperatures, which may be due to increases in greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide Nitrogen Fixation The process that converts nitrogen gas into biologically useful nitrates nitrogen consists of about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere Composition of Earth's Atmosphere Structure of Earth's Atmosphere 75% of the atmosphere's mass is in troposphere.
Mostly nitrogen and oxygen
Contains solids: dust, salts and ice.
Light gases (helium and hydrogen) are found in the exosphere. Objectives Identify Earth's major regions. List the major elements in Earth's crust. Describe the composition of minerals. Lithosphere Its is the solid crust and the upper mantle make up. Earth's Layers Definition: The body of air and gas that envelopes the planet and acts as a protective coating. Objective Describe the structure and composition of Earth's atmosphere.
Identify common chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
Analyze how human activities affect the atmosphere. Objectives Trace the cycle of water in the environment.
Identify the chemical composition of seawater.
Describe methods of desalination.
Outline the steps of a water-treatment process. Works Cited What if the Earth was hollow? http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle.html http://science.yourdictionary.com/mantle http://gamediv1.weebly.com/outer-core.html Objectives Trace the pathway of carbon and nitrogen through the environment.
Compare and contrast the greenhouse effect and global warming. The Hydrosphere Water is the most abundant substance in the human body.
Water covers about 72% of the surface of the planet.
All the water found in and on Earth's surface and atmosphere is called the hydrosphere. Oxygen is the most abundant element in the lithosphere. It contains large variety of other elements.
Alkali, Alkaline earth, and Transition metal Cont. Mineral: A solid, inorganic compound found in nature.
They have distinct crystalline structures and chemical compositions.
Most combinations of metals and nonmetals. Metals There found in the form of oxides, sulfides, or carbonates.
Oxides are compounds of metals combined with oxygen.
Sulfides are compounds of metals combined with sulfur.
Carbonates are compounds of metal combined with both carbon and oxygen. Cont. The minerals is called an ore.
Metals cannot always be extracted from the mineral.
The concentration of the mineral around the rock is too low for it to be mined.
When the ground can no longer hold the water, the water runs off into rivers, lakes, and oceans. Surface Runoff Earth's Freshwater Almost all freshwater is found as groundwater and other underground sources.
0.01% come from surface water such as lakes and rivers.
The atmosphere provides a tiny amount (0.001%) as water vapor.
Freshwater is essential for life on Earth.
Human activities can affect the quality of freshwater . Human Impact on the Hydrosphere Most rivers are polluted
Bacteria and viruses enter water supplies through contamination by sewage and industrial waste.
Coastal cities pump waste directly into the ocean.
Much of the ocean's pollution is focused along coastlines. Main culprits of pollution are nitrogen and phosphorus.
The two elements found in household detergents, soaps, and fertilizers.
They are both difficult to remove from sewage and waste water.
They cause a certain algae and bacteria to reproduce rapidly in the water Global Warming & the Greenhouse Effect The increase of green house gases are the cause for the rising of global temperatures. Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/globalwarming/index.html http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/2013/04/global-warming-and-the-greenhouse-effect-2/ http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?P=WQ252 http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/astronomy/planets/earth/Atmosphere.shtml Chemistry in the Outer Atmosphere Chemistry in the atmosphere is there to create and sustain processes that shield the Earth from radiation.

Photodissociation protects the Earth by absorbing UV radiation

02(g) + high-energy UV -> 2O(g) Chemistry in the Stratosphere cont. Photoionization protects life on Earth by also absorbing high-energy radiation through molecules that remove electrons.

Molecules such as oxygen and nitrogen participate in these processes. Chemistry in the Stratosphere Chemistry in the stratosphere creates ozone, an atmospheric substance that protects the Earth from radiation

O2 molecules split into two and then collide to form ozone. Chemistry in the Stratosphere cont. The amount of ozone in the atmosphere is being decreased due to chloroflourocarbons (CFCs)

CFCs react with radiation, forming atomic chlorine

The atomic chlorine reacts with the ozone and prodcues chlorine monoxide and O2

The products from the breakdown continue to form catalysts for future breakdowns

A single CL atom helps eliminate ozone for 2 years Chemistry in the Troposphere Chemistry in the troposphere causes atmospheric phenomenon

Photochemical smog occurs when light reacts with pollutants in the air.

Acid rain occurs when sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen to produce sulfuric acid. Earth's Oceans Salt comes from rivers and groundwater which dissolved calcium, magnesium and sodium.
salinity is a measure of the mass of salts dissolved in sea water.
The average salinity of ocean water is 35g. per kg. which is about 3.5%.
Chlorine and sodium are the most abundant ions in seawater. Desalination Definition: The removal of salts from seawater to make it usable by living things. Dissolved salts can be removed from freshwater by distillation.
Seawater is boiled to evaporate, leaving pure water behind.
This process is energy extensive and isn't practical for large-scale operation. The solvent is forced to flow from low to high concentration. Coarse filtration: The water is first passed through a screen to remove large solids and then small solids such as sand.
Sedimentation: Powdered lime is added and settles.
Sand filtration: The water is filtered through a bed of sand.
Aeration: The filtered water is sprayed into the air.
Sterilization: The water is treated with substances to kill bacteria.
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