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Unit 1: Introduction to Pharmacology - Ch 1
Transcript of Unit 1: Introduction to Pharmacology - Ch 1
Derived systematically from the chemical structure name
EVERY drug has a generic name!!
Brand / Trade Name
(a company 'owns' the name)
Sources of Drugs
Vinca - Chemo drugs
foxglove - digoxin
Syrup of Ipecac
Pigs - Insulin, Thyroid, Heparin
Cows - Insulin, Heparin
Made from base chemicals
created by genetically modifying living cells
recombinant DNA synthesis
Colony Stimulating Factors
Some Drugs have more than one Brand Name
Marketed by different manufacturers
Marketed for different indications
Based on What condition is being treated or Body System impacted
Based on chemical Structure or Mechanism of Action
are use to
treat hypertension (antihypertensive agent)
; this might include using a Beta Blocker.
Introduction to Pharmacology
Require a Prescription
No Rx Required
No Rx Required
Requires RPh Counsel
Must show ID
Dangerous Substances with a potential for abuse or dependency
Controlled by the DEA
5 Schedules – Identified by “C”
CI – No medical use; not available
CII – Highly restricted; no refills
CIII, CIV – 5 refills
CV – could be a legend* or a BTC restricted agent
(*5 refills allowed in LA / 11 refills per DEA)
is a broad term meaning
the study of drugs
- and all that entails.
The use of 'remedies' is as old as mankind. You will learn about the history of PHARMACY (including Pharmacology) in Pharmacy Practice.
Please read pages 3&4 for a "Brief History of Pharmacology"
To start off - we are going to define a number of terms pertaining to pharmacology.
- the art and science of dispensing medications
- any chemical that causes a change in the body's function
- reason to give a drug
- disease or condition when a drug should
Generally, drugs (medications) are given for a purpose (to cause an effect). There are different "effects" that a drug can cause.
The main reason most drugs are used is to cause
a disease or condition. This is known as
or Therapeutic Effect.
Drugs can also be given to PREVENT a disease or condition - this would be a
. (Prophylaxis = prevent)
Drugs can also be used to
a disease or condition. (Diagnostic)
In a perfect world, a drug would do just what we want it to do, however drugs often have more than one effect, sometimes even harmful effects.
: Unwanted effect of a drug (not usually harmful) ex. drowsiness, headache, nausea, ataxia, orthostatic hypotension
: Unwanted AND harmful effect of a drug ex. ototoxicity, tinnitus, nephrotoxicity, peripheral neuropathy
Dangerous effects ex. teratogenic, carcinogenic
Side Effect and Adverse Effect are often used interchangably. You will need to know the "true" definition for testing, but we will use them interchanably in the context of the course.
Risks of Drug therapy
NO DRUG is SAFE
All drugs have the potential for harm.
Goal of drug therapy is "relatively safe" use.
Sometimes drugs are selected even though we KNOW they have a high potential for Adverse Effects. The decision to use such drugs must be made by the patient with guidence from their health care provider. A comparison of a positive outcome comparatively to the risk of Adverse effects is made, this is known as
"Risk to Benefit ratio".
To ensure drugs are safe, there have been many pieces of legislation passed. The first 'major' law was the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
In 1938 the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed - this required drugs to be SAFE. This established the Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA) to oversee. This law also required a prescription order for certain drugs (legend drugs).
In 1962 the Kefauver Harris Amendment required drugs to be not only safe, but also EFFECTIVE. This law also set the guidelines for Clinical Research before a drug is allowed for general use.
Approximately 1 out of 10,000 proposed drugs will actually make it to market.!
Why are medications so costly? Drug companies have to recover costs associated with the research and development for all the drugs that DON'T make it to market. So, if the ACTUAL manufacturing cost of a new drug is $0.05/tablet and they charge $2.50/tablet - its for all the overhead - payroll, marketing, and those drugs that aren't bringing in any money.
The United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) is book that listed drugs approved for use in the US. Drug information is provided in
monographs ("information sheet").
A drug monograph gives generic name, Brand name(s), chemical name (and molecular structure); Indications, Dosing forms, Dosage Strengths; Pharmacokinetic information; Contraindications; Side and Adverse Effects; and other pertanent information.
Once a drug makes it to market, it doesn't mean that it's completely safe, or that the research is over. Because some drugs will have long-term side effects that won't become evident during the clinical trials -
Post Market Surveillance
is very important.
Information gathered through post market surveillance can result in changes to the dosing information - contraindications, side effect/adverse effect warnings - and can even result in a drug being withdrawn from the market.
Medication Adverse Event and Error Reporting
- FDA's safety information and adverse event reporting system.
Quantros: Regulatory Reporting Manager
- Privately operated system that reports to The Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
- Department of Defence (DoD) system for reporting medication errors
Formulary - a list of medications
The USP is a formulary
Insurance companies use a "formulary" to identify with medcations are covered by their insurance benefits.
A hospital formulary is a list of drugs approved by the P&T Committee (Pharmaceutics and Therapeutics) for use in that facility.
All drugs have a chemical name - because they all have a chemical structure, BUT we don't usually refer to a drug by it's chemical name (very complex)
Example of drug names
We do use the abbreviation for the chemical name to identify acetaminophen
Where do drugs come from?
From what are they made?
Classifying drugs helps to 'group' them
sometimes by what they do,
sometimes by how they do what they do,
sometimes by their side effects.
Classifying drugs by how they can be acquired.
Birth defects caused by the drug thalidomide - now a Pregnancy Category X drug due to it's teratogenicity
Educated Technicians are a patient's first line of defense!
- drug names, classifications, indications, contraindications, routes of administration
Sound Alike Look Alike Drugs