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Kingsley, Francis, Tevin, Anish, Peace & Mursal Hypothesis Seminal Work Historical Development Controversy What is unanswered? Research Question Variables Methodological Method Threats To Validity Threats To Reliability Significance of research Introduction ... the effects of 72h of exercise abstinence on the affect and body of dissatisfaction of regularly active male exercisers. References The benefits of exercise on psychological well-being are well documented (e.g. Biddle, Fox, & Boutcher, 2000; Department of Health, 2004).
There is limited understanding of psychological consequences when regular activity is stopped temporarily (Niven, Rendell & Chisholm, 2008).
Researchers examining the psychological effects of stopping sport or exercise have predominately used the term "exercise cessation" (Glass et al., 2004) or "exercise withdrawal" (Berlin, kop & Duester, 2006), to describe the intervention.
To conduct an ethical study as we intend to do use of such words like 'deprivation', 'withdrawal' would suggest recruitment of participants on a non-voluntary basis (Niven, Rendell & Chisholm, 2008). Coleman Griffith (1926)
(Father of Sports Psychology) Norman Triplett (1897)
- Ailsa Niven , Emily Rendell & Lindsey Chisholm (2008): Effects of 72-h of exercise abstinence on affect and body dissatisfaction in healthy female regular exercisers, Journal of Sports Sciences, 26:11, 1235-1242
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
-Berlin, A. A. et al. (2006). Depressive mood symptoms and fatigue after exercise withdrawal: The potential role of decreased fitness. Psychomatic Medicine, 68, 224-230.
-Biddle, S.J.H (2000). Emotion, mood and physical activity. In S.J.H Biddle, K.R. Fox & Boutcher, S.H (Edition 5) Physical activity and psychological well-being. (pp. 63 – 87). London: Routledge.
-Department of Health (2004). At least five a week: Evidence of the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. A report from the Chief Medical Officer. London: Department of Health.
- Garner, D. M., Olmstead, M. P., & Polivy, J. (1983). Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 2, 15–34.
- Gee, CJ. (2010). How does sport psychology actually improve athletic performance? A framework to facilitate athletes’ and coaches understanding. Behaviour Modification. 34 (5), 386 – 402.
-Glass, J. M. et al. (2004). The effect of brief exercise cessation on pain, fatigue and mood symptom development in healthy, fit individuals. Journal of Psychomatic Research, 57, 391-398.
- Gould, D., & Pick, S. (1995). Sport psychology: The Griffith Era, 1920-1940. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 391-405.
- Green, C. D. (2009). Coleman Roberts Griffith: "Father" of North American sport psychology. In C. D. Green & L. T. Benjamin (Eds.), Psychology gets in the game (pp. 202-229). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
-Hausenblas, H. A., & Fallon, E. A. (2006). Exercise and body image: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Health, 21, 33–47.
- LePage, ML, Price, M, O’Neil and Crowther, JH. (2012). The effect of exercise absence on affect and body dissatisfaction as moderated by obligatory exercise beliefs and eating disordered beliefs and behaviors. Psychology of Sports and Exercise. 13 (4), 500 – 508.
- Logo of Association for Applied Sports Psychology. Retrieved 28th February, 2013 from
- Logo of British Association of Sport & Exercise Sciences (BASES). Retrieved 28th February, 2013 from http://sport.loucoll.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/BASES-Member-logo.jpg
- Logo of British Psychological Society: Sport & Exercise Division. Retrieved 28th February, 2013 from http://www.chi.ac.uk/sites/default/files/styles/gallery_large/public/counselling-chi-uni-12.jpg
- Logo of North American Society for the Psychology of Sport. Retrieved 28th February, 2013 from http://sphotos-b.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/563412_420750334609073_1122307349_n.jpg
- McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A. (2004). Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: A review of past literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol 56(6), 675-685.
- Mciza, Z, Goedecke, JH, Steyn, NP, Charlton, K, Puiane, T, Meltzer, S, Levitt, NS and Lambert, EV. (2005). Development and validation of instruments measuring body
image and body weight dissatisfaction in South African mothers and their daughters. Public Health Nutrition. 8 (5), 509 – 519. Retrieved 28th Frebruary, 2013 from
-Peluso, M. A., & Andrade, L. H. (2005). Physical activity and mental health: the association between exercise and mood, Clinics, 60, 61–70.
- Picture of Coleman Griffiths. Retrieved 28th February, 2013 from http://psyberia.ru/face/griffith.jpg
- Picture of Cronbach's alpha formula. Retrieved 28th February, 2013, formulahttp://1.bp.blogspot.com/_AawJaPQyQfc/TEGc8OLlEZI/AAAAAAAAABE/6rmGzWFpEbg/s1600/alpha+formula.png
- Picture of Norman Triplett. Retrieved 28th February, 2013 from http://www.socialpsychology.org/images/socialfigures/triplett.jpg
- Presnell, K, Bearman, SK and Stice, E. (2004). Risk factors for body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls: a prospective study. International Journal of Eating Disorders. 36 (4), 389 – 401.
- Strube, M. J. (2005). What did Triplett really find? A contemporary analysis of the first experiment in social psychology. American Journal of Psychology, 118, 271-286.
-Thompson, J. K., & Van Den Berg, P. (2002). Measuring body image attitudes among adolescents and adults. In. T. F. Cash & T. Pruzinsky (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of theory, research and clinical practice (pp. 142–154). New York: Guilford Press.
- Triplett, N. (1898). The dynamogenic factors in pacemaking and competition. American Journal of Psychology, 9, 507-533.
- Triplett, N. (1900). The psychology of conjuring deceptions, American Journal of Psychology, 11, 439-510. North American Society for the Psychology of Sport - 1986
Association for Applied Sports Psychology (AASP) - 1986
British Association of Sport & Exercise Sciences (BASES) -1984
British Psychological Society: Sport & Exercise Division - 1901 Peluso and Andrade (2005) have suggested that over-training syndrome and excessive exercise could cause mental health disturbances. Niven et al. (2008) examine the effects of 72h of exercise abstinence on affect and body dissatisfaction in healthy female regular exercisers.
Several other authors, including LePage et al. (2012), and Hausenblas and colleagues (2008) have also studied the exercise abstinence. But these studies have generally been performed on females alone or mixed population.
Therefore the purpose of this experiment is to investigate... Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS) from The Eating
Disorder Inventory (Garner, Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983):
- Measuring body image dissatisfaction.
- Well-developed instrument (Thompson & Van Den Berg, 2002). Methodological Method Methodological Method Methodological Method Controversy for BDS:
- Negative Evaluation
- Associated with emotional
distress, preoccupation with appearance, and unnecessary cosmetic surgery Independent Variable (IV) - Body Dissatisfaction Scale
Dependent Variable (DV) - Score of Body Dissatisfaction Body Dissatisfaction Scale Questionnaire - Mciza et al. 2005 The importance of research in sport psychology, both as an academic discipline and an applied practice, has grown substantially over the past two decades.
(Gee, 2010) Participants Instruments & Procedures Experimental Design Threats To Validity Threats To Reliability Types of threats Types of threats Controlled Measures Controlled Measures - 60 Volunteers
- Male University Students
- Poster, Email, Presentation
- University Labs
- Body Dissatisfaction Scale Questionnaire
- Recruit Volunteers
- Text - Random Selection
- Experiment - Quasi-Experimental Design
- Treatment Group & Control Group
- Related Group Design
- Qualitative Research -John Henry Effect. - Systematic Bias: Fatigue/Boredom
- Participants noncompliance of the procedure
- Change the order of questions in the BDS questionnaire.
- Participants will fill out a questionnaire to confirm compliance of experimental procedure External:
- Lab setting , trying to keep it consistent.
- Volunteers not randomize. Internal: - Expectancy effects in exercise deprivation studies (Szabo, 1995).
-Participants' integrity. Extraneous Validity Variable:
- The noises Internal: - Don't verbalise to the volunteer of the outcome of the study.
- The questionnaire after the exercise/abstinence period. External: - Try to replicate the lab settings.
- Don't select them specifically - Reduce Noises. Construct Validity Variable:
- Cronbach's Alpha Test There is a difference between a period of exercise abstinence compared with continuing physical activity and will lead to a significant increase in body dissatisfaction.
There is no significant difference through a period of exercise abstinence compared with continuing physical activity. Thank you Any questions? ...