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LES4:5,4,3,2,1...Blast off!

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Benjamin Collier

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of LES4:5,4,3,2,1...Blast off!

LES4: 5,4,3,2,1...Blast off!
By: Benjamin Collier

Space Adventure
Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines
A liquid propellant rocket functions due to the use of two tanks located within the rocket (one containing a fuel and the other an oxidizer). This fuel gets pumped from their tanks trough tubes where they become pressurized. After this process of pressurization, the fuels are then mixed together in the combustion chamber, where upon entering are ignited, which provides the enormous thrust for the rocket.
Multistage Rockets
Multistage rockets are designed around an idea that a rocket is to be comprised of two or more sections, as each of these sections depletes it's fuel capacity, its jettisoned off of the rocket. The rocket is usually created so that the bottom of the rocket has the largest, heaviest sections and the closest sections to top are the smallest and lightest.
Why Use a Multistage Rocket?
Multistage rockets are used becasue they are ideal for long range pace missions, as sections are jettisoned the raft becomes lighter, can reach higher velocities and altitude faster, and each and every section can be used for specific purposes that are needed for certain atmospheric levels and altitudes.
In my presentation, I will present to you how liquid propellant rockets work, how a multistage rocket is designed, what the best fuel/oxidizer combination is and much, much more!
Hypergolic Propellants
A hypergolic propellant is a proellant that uses a fuel and an oxidizer, but does not need an ignition source as the two spontaneously combust when they come in contact with each other making them easier to start and restart. An example of a hypergolic propellant is Methylhdrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.
Choosing a Propellant:
Propellants Available to be Chosen:
Choosing the right propellant for the job is no easy task, there are many factors that must be taken into account before a conclusion can be made on any fuel/oxidizer combination. Some things that must be taken into account are:
- Environmental impact of the reactants used and the release of their products into the atmosphere.
-The saftey and toxicity of the reactants
-Thrust provided by the reactants/propellants
-Mass of the propellants
-Use of an ignition system for the reactant.
For the research on what propellant was best for the space voyage the following reactants were given:
-Hydrogen and Oxygen
-Methylhydrzine and nitrogen tetroxide
-N-dodecane and Oxygen
-Ethanol and Oxygen
Chosen Propellant:
For the space journey, I have chosen to use Hydrogen and Oxygen as my fuel and oxidizer. The reasons for this is choice are:
- It's the current fuel and oxidizer mix for NASA.
-For the most part it's completely harmless
-The products that it creates from the reaction do not cause environmental damage.
-Relatively safe, and easy to handle/store
-Provides a lot of thrust
-Does not have an incredibly large mass,
although it needs large tanks, and is
cryogenic, its lighter than a hypergolic
propellant.

Hydrogen and Oxygen:
Methylhydrazine and
Nitrogen Tetroxide:
N-Dodecane and Oxygen:
Ethanol and Oxygen:
Energy Balance of the Combustion of Hydrogen:
Energy Balance of the combustion of Methylhydrazine:
Energy balance of the combustion of N-Dodecane:
Energy balance of the combustion of Ethanol:
Conclusion:
The reaction between Hydrogen and Oxygen provide an enthalpy change per gram of propellant that is:
deltaH= -13.422 Kj/g

Environmental Impact:
-Hydrogen and Oxygen are quite safe for the environment and their reaction process only produces water vapour.
Safety of Hydrogen and Oxygen:
Safety of Methylhydrazine and
Nitrogen Tetroxide:
Safety of N-Dodecane and Oxygen:
Safety of Ethanol and Oxygen:
The reaction between Methylhydrazine and Nitrogen Tetroxide provide an enthalpy change per gram of propellant that is:
deltaH= -12.025 Kj/g

Environmental Impact:
Methylhydrazine is highly toxic can can cause cancer due to it being a carcinogen. Because of it having a spontaneous reaction it explodes on contact with an oxidizer. Not only is it toxic and a carcinogen, when it comes within the presence of air it can make DMN another carcinogen and polluter of groundwater. The products of its reaction, Nitrogen and Carbon Dixoide also have numerous negative environmental impacts.
The reaction between N-Dodecane and Oxygen provide an energy change per gram of propellant that is: deltaH=-1.688 KJ/g

Environmental Impact:
-N-Dodecane is only fatal when swallowed/inhaled while the product of this reaction is Carbon Dioxide, which is slightly toxic but only in large quantities, Carbon Dioxide also affects the atmosphere and is one of the principle greenhouse gases, this means that it effects all life on earth in many negative ways ( like raising the earth's temperature).
The reaction between Ethanol and Oxygen provide an enthalpy change per gram of propellant that is:
deltaH= -8.646 KJ/g

Environmental Impact:
Ethanol is only toxic when ingested and the other products/reactants are safe for the most part, other than the Carbon Dioxide which is produced, this emission affects the atmosphere and is one of the principle greenhouse gases, this means that it effects all life on earth in many negative ways ( like raising the earth's temperature).
Catalyst/Ignition System for Methylhydrazine and
Nitrogen Tetroxide:
Catalyst / Ignition System for Hydrogen and Oxygen:
Catalyst / Ignition System for N-Dodecane and Oxygen:
Catalyst / Ignition System for Ethanol and Oxygen:
In conclusion, out of the possible fuel and oxidizer mixtures, I believe that Hydrogen and Oxygen is the best possible mix because it is overall just a great mix of power, safety, and low toxicity. The ideal fuel and oxidizer for a space bound rocket.

Safety Precuatuions for storage/use:
-Hydrogen:
Flammable, needs to be kept away from possible ignition sources. Needs to be contained in large tanks, and dissolves weak metals and therefore needs to be kept in a strong container.
-Oxygen:
Can react with flammable gas to make an explosion/fire, can lead to asphyxiation(suffocating) if it leaks out, compressed and pressurized, and can be
toxic in large doses.

Safety Precuations for Storage/Use:
-N-Dodecane:
Must be tightly sealed as to not seep out and be inhaled, must not be close to heat or ignition sources to avoid combustion, needs strong container because of pressureization/compression, can cause asphyxiation and is toxic when breathed in.
-Oxygen:
Can react with flammable gas to make an explosion/fire, can lead to asphyxiation(suffocating) if it leaks out, compressed and pressurized, and can be
toxic in large doses.

Safety Precautions for Storage/Use:
-Ethanol: Due to it being flammable, it needs to be kept from oxidizers/ignition sources, Ethanol is toxic and when being dealt with needs to be in a well ventilated area, can also break through some weak plastics.
-Oxygen: Can react with flammable gas to make an explosion/fire, can lead to asphyxiation(suffocating) if it leaks out, compressed and pressurized so needs a strong container, and can be toxic in large doses.
N-Dodecane Molecule
Oxygen Molecule
Oxygen Molecule
Ethanol Molecule
Oxygen Molecule
Safety Precuations for Storage/Use:
Methylhydrazine:
Requires special precautions and careful handling because of its highly toxic properties and explosive nature. It should be kept from heat, ignition sources, or oxidizers as these can result in an explosion. Even repeated exposure to vapour/rsidue can cause health problems.
Nitrogen Tetroxide:
Very toxic and should not be breathed in, kept sealed well, is a powerful oxidizer that should not be mixed with fuels, it is hyergolic and can cause spontaneous combustion.
A Hydrogen/Oxygen mixture can be ignited in two ways, It can be ignited by using a small spark with as little energy as 20 micro joules. The other way the mixture can be ignited is by raising its temperature to 570 degrees Celsius where it auto ignites, because of its cryogenic properties.
A Methylhydrazine and Nitrogen Tetroxide mixture can be ignited by simply mixing the two together, due to it being a hypergolic propellant. The two are pumped into the combustion chamber and spontaneously ignite, providing the rocket its thrust.
A N-Dodecane and Oxygen Mixture can be ignited by an open flame, or a spark to the fuel/oxidizer mixture while the two are in the combustion chamber.
An Ethanol and Oxygen mixture can be ignited by an open flame or spark to the fuel/oxidizer mixture while the two are inside the combustion chamber.
Unsymmetrical
Dimethylhydrazine
Molecule
Dintrogen Tetroxide
Molecule
Benjamin Collier ChemistryB Notes Jan.20th.2014

Topic: Functioning of a Liquid Fuel Rocket
Media Reference: Ha, Nicholas. “Liquid Propellant Rockets An Overview-Cosmos”. January 20th 2014. Cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2012/cluster3/Ha_Nicholas.pdf
Summary of Information: Used The Presentation for information on the design of the liquid propellant rocket and basic information on how they operate.

Topic: How a Liquid Propellant Rocket Works
Media Reference: Bellis, Mary. “Liquid Propellant Rocket”. January 20th 2014. http://inventors.about.com/od/rstartinventions/a/SolidPropellant_2.htm
Summary of Information: I have used this source in order to learn how a liquid propellant rocket functions, and how it uses its pressurized oxidizer and fuel to have thrust.

Topic: How A Multistage Rocket is Designed/Advantages of a Multistage Rocket
Media Reference: “Multistage Rocket”. January 20th 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multistage_rocket
Summary of Information: I used this source to find how a multistage rocket is designed/works. I also used this site to find the advantages of a multistage rocket.

Topic: Hypergolic Propellants
Media Reference: Hypergolic Propellants. January 21st 2014. http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/02144/propulsion/propellents/hypergolic.htm#
Summary of Information: I used this website to find in the information on hypergolic propellants, and what the advantages are with them.


Topic: UDMH
Media Reference: Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine. January 21st 2014. “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unsymmetrical_dimethylhydrazine”.
Summary of Information: I used this source in order to find the information for UDMH and its environmental impact/toxicity that it has, and the special precautions that are required to store it.

Topic: Storage of Compressed Gases
Media Reference: Praxair. Safe Handling and Storage of Compressed Gases. January 21st 2014. “http://www.uvic.ca/science/stores/assets/docs/Compressed%20Gas%20Safety%2025Jan2012.pdf”
Summary of Information: This document provides information on various types of gases and how to store them/precautions of storing the gas.

Topic: UDMH Storage
Media Reference: Arch Chemicals. Propellants - Responsible Care. “http://www.archchemicals.com/Fed/HDR/Products/Propellants/responsiblecare.htm”
Summary of Information: This source provided the information on the storage of UDMH and the conditions required for it to be safe to handle.

Topic: Hydrogen/Oxygen Ignition
Media Reference: Oxyhydrogen. January 28th 2014. “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxyhydrogen”
Summary of Information: This website provided me the information on how to ignite a mixture of Hydrogen/Oxygen.

Topic: Cryogenic Fuel
Media Reference: Cryogenic Fuel. January 28th 2014. “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryogenic_fuel”
Summary of Information: This source provided the information on Cryogen Fuels and what they are.
Full transcript