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The Cold War
Transcript of The Cold War
the Cold War was a war like no other. The
United States of America (US)
Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR/Soviet Union)
emerged out of the Second World War as superpowers (and victorious), being the 2 most powerful nations in the world. There were also opposites:
They both fought to spread their ideology to the rest of the world.
They didn't fight directly though, both of them possessing nuclear weapons, a direct confrontation would have led to launching of each others missiles. Which would lead to the end of the world, history, people...
Instead they fought through various proxy wars, like the Korean War, Vietnam War, and Soviet War in Afghanistan. They also were rivals during the Space Race, to see who would reach various firsts in space exploration.
Sputnik btw... and a tank
The first major event of the
wanted full control of the
. Starting on June 24, 1948 the
railways, roads, and canal access to
response was called the
, over 200,000 flights by the end of the year were made carrying over 4,700 tons of necessities and goods to the
. The flights ended up bringing more supplies than before the blockade. The
were humiliated and reopened access
o the city on May 12, 1949.
For 13 days the world was at its closest to a nuclear apocalypse as this was an event when the Cold War could have quickly heat up. The event was known as...
From October 14 to the 28 of the year 1962, the world stood at the brink of nuclear war. The
began when the
attempted to overthrow
Bay of Pigs Invasion
which both failed.
saw a justification for placing the missiles in
also had their missiles in
at the doorstep of the
so why should they do the same.
also assumed that
was a weak leader after his response of the
was informed of the
activities after a
U-2 Spy plane
captured pictures of the
was faced with several ways to approach the situation.
- Destroy all of the
, would likely lead to
and remove the
, would also likely lead to
- Prevent any more
from arriving in
to remove the remai
- By itself just cause
to remove the
- Do nothing, leave their
and leave the
President Kennedy settled for the Blockade calling it a "Quarantine" because a blockade is an act of war, which war was the last thing he wanted to do.
At the end a deal was made between both
would remove the
they have sent to
. In return, the
would pledge not to ever invade
. In secret though, six months in the future the
would remove their
fought each other with support from the
) such as the
First Indochina War
Soviet War in Afghanistan
, and the
was sparked by the ever increasing tension by the puppet governments of the divided
. At the end of
occupied north of the 38th parallel line, while the
occupied south of that line. Unification of the peninsula was talked about but never put into action instead puppet government were set up by the superpowers. The
Republic of Korea (ROK/South)
was democratic and capitalist. The Democratic
People's Republic of Korea (DPRK/North)
was an authoritarian communist dictatorship. The war was sparked when the
on June 25, 1950
Before the war, the
to protest the fact that the
Republic of China (Taiwan)
, instead of The
People's Republic of China (Mainland)
authorized military intervention in the war, it could of been vetoed if the
had still been a member. At first the
successful in their invasion pushing the UN forces do
wn to the
A much longer conflict which lasted from 1957 to 1975, was the
, which officially began on October 4, 1957 with the
launch of the
. It triggered the
, making them fear that if the
can launch a
into space they can also launch a nuclear
, an obvious threat to national security. The
overhauled the education system, focusing on producing a new generation of engineers. They also rushed their current attempt to launch their own satellite called
, and their space program.
The Arms Race that began in 1949 when the
successfully tested their
own atomic bomb
for both later
hydrogen bombs, intercontinental bombers, and ICBMs
) gave both powers rockets capable of reaching outer space, leaving the Earth's atmosphere.
Sputnik 1st satellite; 1957
Vanguard launch fails causes major embarrassment to the United States because it was broadcaster live on international TV; 1957
Explorer 1 First American Satellite; 1958
Yuri Garin, First man in orbit on Vostok 1; 1961
Alan Shepard, First American in Space on Freedom 7; 1961
Kennedy officially supports the Apollo program stating that by the end the decade an American would be placed on the moon, launching the Moon Race; 1961
Kennedy proposes for the US an
d the USSR to work together, at first Khrushchev refuses. Eventually he becomes inclined to accept the offer b
ut President Kennedy is assassinated and he distrusted Johnson, dismissing the idea; 1963
Valentina Terehkiva first civilian and woman in space; 1963
Soviets replace Khrushchev and cancel Voskkod 3 and 4, ending the Soviets' string of many firsts; 1960s
The many tests by the Soviets on their moon program were failures, only one test flight out of five were successful, bringing tortoises. They canceled their moon program by 1970 after
2 successful American moon landings
Apollo 8 orbits the moon; 1968
Apollo 11 lands on the moon and successfully returns.
First space station, Salyut 1; 1971
The tide turned and eventually the
forces pushed back in a counter attack and event past the 38th Parallel all the way up to the Yula River.
PRC (Communist China)
joined and helped the
pushing the battlefront down to the 38th Parallel. The
also provided aid to the
. Finally , an armistice was signed on July 27, 1953, placing the border at the 38th Parallel, and the construction of the of the
Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
Minor incidents still continue to this day.
government gained a huge amount of prestige by "defeating" a
western major power
, however it sealed the permanent existence of the democratic one (
). The war combined both
WW1 and WW2
tactics, beginning with a 'lightning war" and ending in a trench warfare.
struggled but eventually prospered.
is still the same...
Culture during the Cold War was severely affected by the constant threat of nuclear war and its apocalyptic aftermath. Movies like 'The Day the Earth Stood Still', 'Mad Max' and 'Red Dawn' became very popular and dealt with this theme.
Rock & Roll, Disco, Punk, and Jazz were very popular during the time period. Rock & Roll was shunned by parents who feared their kids were going to be influenced by the
built various opera houses to impress
with Classical music, yet the
came to hear Rock & Roll, and even the
themselves came like the genre. to Jazz was used by the
US Department of the State
to show off
and considered a 'democratic' musical genre.
John F. Kennedy
Fought during WW2 in the Pacific.
Represented Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives; 1947 to 1953
US Senator; 1953 to 1960
Defeated Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election.
At 43, he is the youngest to have been elected to the office.
A Catholic, Kennedy is the only non-Protestant president.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, and early stages of the Vietnam War.
Fidel Castro was a young lawyer in Cuba when General Batista overthrew the president of Cuba. This angered him, and for the next 7 years he tried to overthrow the Batista's government.
Castro led his first attack on July 26, 1953, against the military barracks in Santiago, but he was defeated and arrested. Castro was sentenced 15 years in prison. However, he was released on 1955 by Batista to show his supreme power. His second attack was on December 2, 1956, he was defeated again by Batista's army and fled to the Sierra Maestra. Finally, his third attack, with the help of their rebellious Cubans, Castro made Batista flee the country.
Fidel Castro soon suspended all elections and named himself "President for Life." He established a communist government with himself as a dictator and began relations with the Soviet Union.
At first the United States supported Castro but when he embraced communism, the U.S. attempted to overthrow him. On April 17, 1961, at Cuba's Bay of Pigs, there was a battle between U.S. sponsored Cuban exiles and the Cuban armed forces.
The Cuban Revolution was a turning point in recent history. Because of Castro, Cuba became an important player in the global power of the Soviet Union and the severity of the Cold War. His status as dictator is highly opposed by many nations because of the violations of human rights practiced under his rule.
The Collapse of the Soviet Union
In December 1991, the world saw in amazement as the U.S.S.R. disintegrated into 15 different countries. The United States celebrated as its enemy was brought to its knees, officially ending the Cold War.
After the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the newly-formed government developed a philosophy of socialism with the gradual transition to Communism. The state which the Bolsheviks created was intended to overcome national differences, and rather to create one nation based on a centralized economical and political system. This state, which was built on a Communist ideology, was eventually transformed into a totalitarian state, in which the Communist leadership had complete control over the country.
last leader, the country was in a situation of severe stagnation, with deep economic and political problems which needed to be addressed. Recognizing this, Gorbachev introduced 2 policies for reform.
- increased freedom of speech.
- 'Rebuilding' an economic reform.
Gorbachev did not realize that by giving people complete freedom of expression, he was unwittingly unleashing emotions and political feelings that had been pent up for decades, and which proved to be extremely powerful when brought out into the open. Also, his policy of economic reform did not have the immediate results he had hoped for and had publicly predicted. The Soviet people consequently used their newly given freedom of speech to criticize Gorbachev for his failure to improve the economy.
However, the task of creating a unified, centralized socialist state proved a huge problem for several reasons.
The Soviets underestimated how much non-Russians would resist assimilating into Russian culture (more than fifty percent of the total population of the Soviet Union wasn't Russian)
Their economic planning failed to meet the needs of their own people, which was caught up in a vicious arms race with the United States. This led to economic decline.
The ideology of Communism, which the Soviet Government worked to instill in the hearts and minds of its population, never took firm root, and eventually lost whatever influence it had originally carried.
Questions still arise as to who really won the Cold War, some say the
. However, the only reason they won is because the
collapsed, if it never did the Cold War would still be going on... or worse we could be all dead in a nuclear wasteland.
The Cold War, was a war like no other and in one way or another it still affects us to this very day.