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Manufacturing Adventure NEW

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Jennifer Grenier

on 13 March 2013

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Transcript of Manufacturing Adventure NEW

Lyng’s (1990) Concept of
EDGEWORK
in voluntary risk activity THE RUBBISH SIDE OF ADVENTURE The selling of risk in the adventure markeet Themes by French Toast Mafia Manufacturing Adventure
it’s in the eye of the beholder ADVENTURE "a variety of self-initiated activities utilizing
an interaction with the natural environment, that contains elements of real or apparent
danger in which the outcome, while uncertain, can be influenced by the participant
and circumstance" (Ewert, 1989).

"An unusual and exciting, typically hazardous, experience or activity" (dictionary.com). AD-VEN-TURE THEMES selling risk in the adventure market Edgework and risk/caution tension Glorification of risk in the adventure market Commodification of adventure Perceived risk: an individual’s subjective assessment of the real risk present at any time (Haddock, 1993)

Real risk: the amount of risk, which actually exists at a given moment in time (absolute risk adjusted by safety controls) (Haddock, 1993) The Selling of Risk on the “Adventure Market” When marketing various adventure experiences, companies manipulate individual’s perceived risk in two ways, depending on the degree of the “extremity” of the activity:


1. Perceived risk is seen as a hurdle to attracting tourists and the managerial aim is to reduce it.

2. At the same time there is a sub-sector of tourism industry, adventure tourism that seems to work in precisely the opposite way: perceived risk is something attractive to the potential consumers, something they are actively searching for. Everest Tough Mudder "Death" Waiver

Insurance Companies (Keneally, 2012)

Immediate Response teams
(lifeguards, EMT, Firefighters etc…) (Keneally, 2012) Tough Mudder Safety “Assumption of inherent risks…TM event is a hazardous activity that presents the ultimate physical and mental challenge to participants” (Tough Mudder, 2012)

Participation is at your own risk, as this or any other exercise program may result in injury. To reduce the risk of injury, before beginning this or any training program please consult your doctor. Tough Mudder is not responsible for any injuries that may result from the exercises or training program described on this site.” (Tough Mudder, 2012) MEDIA INFLUENCES For example, the adventure of the climb up Mt. Everest is perceived to be safer than it actually is.
During the 1996 ascend to the summit, 8 people died (Safai, Lecture 4) compared to zero in Tough Mudder.








While something like Tough Mudder is promoted as more dangerous than really is... Risk taking has been normalized by the media and gone mainstream

The way that “extreme” experiences/adventures are marketed creates the impression that death & serious injury are unlikely occurrences, and that EVERYONE & ANYONE can partake in them -“GCB (The Great Canadian Bungee Corporation) was founded on the principles of product excellence with the highest degree of safety possible” (bungee.ca). \
 
 
-“Safe... We invented safe” (AJ Hackett Bungy)
 
 
-“Here’s the best bit, the kites are always getting better and safer, so kiteboarding has never been so accessible. With the help of a qualified instructor, anyone can give it a go. Most people can be up on their board in just a few hours and a few lessons and a bit of practice can be catching some tasty air!” (extremetoronto.com)
 
-“Skydiving is a simple concept. Get in a plane, fly to a height of around 13,000ft and jump out. Oh and parachutes… You’ll be needing one of those. Probably best not to tell your mom either. Extreme sports are all about adrenaline chasing and what better way to do that than jumping from a plane on a beautiful blue sky day and chasing it towards the ground?” (extremetoronto.com) -“This selling of extremity at the expense of risk… is best captured in the comments of one backpacker… ‘you go to a resort area and you climbing with chicks wearing sports bras. It’s advertised like an amusement park’” (Palmer, 2009) “Organizations today face the challenge of dealing with a society that promotes ‘xtreme’ experiences and a market that still wants adventure, but maybe without the risk of death, but still with “the appearance of fatefulness, thus obtaining some of the glory with very little of the risk” (Holyfield, 1999).

While some activities are inherently more risky than others, search in the media shows that… Tough Mudder (2011): “Some suffered from dehydration, while others sought treatment for fractures, dislocations and lacerations” (Zagorski, 2011)

-Everest (1996): 8 people died trying to reach the summit (Lecture)
 
-Skydiving accident (1997): 3 skydivers “plummeted at more than 200 km/h into a packed ice, their chutes failing to open”(Palmer, 2009)
Many of the adventures that are promoted as “safe” and “anyone can do it” rely on the high degree of technical knowledge and skills, but never the less a high number of novice and relatively inexperienced people partake in them…(Palmer, 2002)
 






 
How might profit mediate/mitigate safety?
 
Is risk really calculable?
 
How do we reconcile the normalization of extreme risk-taking with living in a ‘risk society’?
 

Picture: http://lizzyknowsall.blogspot.ca/2009/11/would-you-describe-yourself-as.html Points to Ponder… Everest VS. "the new gantlet for body conscious Gen Xers" (Stein, 2012)

76% Male, Average Age: 29

"Macho Sport of choice for Type A men (and some women) who find marathons too easy and triathlons meh." (Stein, 2012) Tough Mudder Market “Lyng argues that individuals engage in risk activities to find their
“true selves” in ways not open to them through the increasingly
alienating avenue of paid labour“ (Laurendeau, 2008) "Finance people are in a weird juxtaposition," Mr. Dean (co founder) said. "They may make 100 times more than their fathers, but their hands are soft. We designed Tough Mudder to fill that void" (Shaefer, 2011) Stein, J, D., (2012). Forging a Bond in Mud and Guts . [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/09/fashion/extreme-obstacle-course-races-forge-a-bond-in-mud-and-guts.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&. [Last Accessed 11 Jan- 2013 ]. White Collar "Professionals" working in "softer" careers associate to the military training and become masculine by association
(Heasley from Stein, 2012). Laurendeau, J. (2008). Gendered risk regimes: A theoretical consideration of edgework and gender. Sociology of
Sport Journal, 25, 293-309. “Individuals might engage in risk-taking adventures as part of a process of exploring them “selves” rather than a response
from their relationship to the labor market “ (Laurendeau, 2008)

Material and emotional rewards Social formations that value: Material and emotional rewards character, a shared identity, and comradeship” (Laurendeau of Donnelly, 2008, p. 300) Donnelly’s (2008) EDGEWORK perspective: Laurendeau, J. (2008). Gendered risk regimes: A theoretical consideration of edgework and gender. Sociology of Sport Journal, 25, 293-309. Risk Taking always involves some
sort of assessment of whether the
risk is a reasonable one (Laurendeau, 2008)


“They want the psychosocial benefits they receive as they explore the boundary between chaos and control” (Laurendeau, 2008)

Would Individuals still sign up for Tough Mudder if there were deaths associated with the event? RISK/CAUTION TENSION **Right to be rescued? Risk_________><_______Caution Laurendeau, J. (2008). Gendered risk regimes: A theoretical consideration of edgework and gender. (Sociology of Sport Journal, 25, 293-309). Eells, J. (2012) Tough Mudder: Mud, Sweat & No Tears. Men's Journal, [online] October. Available at: http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/tough-mudder-mud-sweat-no-tears-20121030 [Accessed: March 8th, 2013.]. "Why would anyone pay $125 to put themselves through that?'" According to Patterson, the event fills a very modern need. "We don't really know if we're tough anymore" (Eells, 2012) Stein, J. D. (2012, December 7). Forging a Bond in Mud and Guts. The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/09/fashion/extreme-obstacle-course-races-forge-a-bond-in-mud-and-guts.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 “A part of me always wanted to join the army, but I never did,” said Evan Lotzof, 31, a senior accountant at Deloitte from Astoria, Queens, who ran Tough Mudder in October. “Tough Mudder gives me a sense of band of brothers.” The warlike glory was evident. Tough Mudder is glorified for the challenges it brings to the participant
The participants who ‘survive’ and complete the race are praised
Similarly to Soldiers of War – heroic, brave
References similar to those used in War
Athletes are shown to struggle, but also succeed.
Teammates help participants push through the course, even through injury. War as an adventure? Hyper-masculine, thrill seeking character that constantly lives playing with death "outside" life becomes a daunting, repetitive and un-enjoyable experience Soldier that dismantles bombs "Crowding the Edge" -“Every great disaster…if marketed correctly, can be sold for profit” -Various sporting and adventure disasters get picked up by the media, especially by the tragedy genre, and made-for-Hollywood ‘adventure sagas’ are created (Palmer, 2009)

-Importance of the Films such as "Everest" is that they play an important role in the selling of risk, constructing extreme experience in a very particular way/reoccurring themes

1. Man vs. the elements: generation of an ‘extreme action hero’/ emerges battled and bruised from harsh conditions

‘I’ve been dreaming of this moment since I was a boy’

‘Even in the face of extreme hardship, they had always acted with courage and grace’ Everest (1998) Commodification as part of the Manufacturing Process Varley, D. P. (2006). Confecting adventure and playing with meaning: the adventure commodification continuum. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 11(2), 173-194. Ackerman’s Deep-Shallow Model commodity. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved March 08, 2013, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/commodity
com·mod·i·ty
[kuh-mod-i-tee]

noun, plural com·mod·i·ties.

1. an article of trade or commerce, especially a product as distinguished from a service.



3. Stock Exchange. any unprocessed or partially processed good, as grain, fruits, and vegetables, or precious metals.

4. Obsolete . a quantity of goods Traditional definition $125 x 3500 particpants = $437, 500 Given the average cost of $125 per participant.
Tough Mudder has large potential for profit. http://toughmudder.com/events/toronto-sat-may-11-sun-may-12-2013/ Registration Fees Lyng's Concept of
EDGEWORK "Everest is our crown jewel in the world. We should not take it for granted. The amount of trash there is, is damaging our pride"
Kripa Rana Shahi, director of art group Da Mind Tree 2. Situation present where an individual distinguishes himself/herself from the crowd

First Spanish woman to reach the summit

3. Someone normally survives: helps to construct the adventurer as a ‘heroic class’

Film portrays Everest as the pinnacle of the world, only real way to feel fulfilled in ones life is to experience the thrill of the summit.
Furthermore...

The actual risk was greater than the perceived risk

They summited to the ‘top of the world’ – ultimate accomplishment

Film portrays it to be a lot easier than in reality.

"In such media constructions an extreme athlete emerges as ever adventurous, and it’s out of this construction that the discourse of risk taking is principally made up" (Palmer, 2009) :


RISK-->ADVENTURE-->ENTERTAINMENT http://www.dailymail.co.uk/travel/article-2240905/The-rubbish-adventure-tourism-Mount-Everest-turned-art.html#ixzz2NCXaJojy 2. something of use, advantage, or value. Tough Mudder Everest Shaefer, K., (2011). One Tough Mudder. [ONLINE] Available at: http://espn.go.com/espn/print?id=6657667&type=Story&imagesPrint=off. [Last Accessed February 16, 2013].  -Interlaken Disaster (1999): canyoning tragedy, in which 21 young people lost their lives (Head, 1999)

-Injuries on the ‘Survivor’: “It's an unfortunate trend on Survivor and one that only seems to be getting worse every season…No pads, no gear, very few apparent guidelines for safe contact — which isn't even the case with highly trained wrestlers and football players. It is a great way to injure people, and people were injured (Hirsch, 2010)
 
“The death of Primal Quest competitor Nigel Aylott raises the question: Has adventure racing become too intense?”
- Who is accountable for accidents: The organizers or the racers themselves?
-In the words of one of the participants, "It's a real fine line between what's an adventure and what's an unsafe race course" (Yen, 2004) Yen, Y. (2004). Sports Illustrated.Fatal Path: The death of Primal Quest competitor Nigel Aylott raises the question: Has adventure racing become too intense? Retrieved from http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1103847/2/index.htm

Zagorski, E. (2011). News Republic. Tough Madders Head to Hospitals. Retrieved from http://www.wiscnews.com/news/article_e9bc5a42-ba57-11e0-90fe-001cc4c03286.html#.USUeTq5mesA.email Head, M. (1999).World Socialist Website. Profit drive blamed for Swiss canyon tragedy. Retrieved from http://www.wsws.org/en/articles/1999/08/swss-a06.html

Hirch, M. (2010). Monkey See. The 'Survivor' Injury Report: All Fun And Games Until Someone Loses An Eye. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/blogs/monkeysee/2010/02/the_survivor_injury_report_its.html Keneally, S. (2012). Playing Dirty, Outside Magazine, Nov. 2012 edition
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