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Treaty of Neuilly and Treaty of Sevres

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Gail Rose

on 7 February 2014

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Transcript of Treaty of Neuilly and Treaty of Sevres

Treaty of Neuilly and Treaty of Sevres
Date:

November 27, 1919
Signed by:

Bulgaria and the Allied victors of WWI (signed in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France)
Conflict that led to the treaty:
World War I
Won:
The victors of the war (Allied powers)
Bulgaria played relatively small part in war, but had a strategic geographical location and strong military
-treaty weakened military and redrew borders, weakened economy by requiring war reparations
Lost:
Bulgaria (sided with the Central powers during WWI)
Gave up land to Greece, Romania, and what would eventually become Yugoslaiva, known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes at the time
Ceded Western Thrace to Triple Entente which gave it to Greece
Consequence: lost direct access to the Aegean Sea (part of Mediterranean Sea)
Dobrudja was given to Romania
Northern Macedonia was given to Yugoslavia
Military Restrictions of 20 000
Reparations of 100 million pounds

Global Reactions:
Favorable: Britain and France, who wished to weaken Central Powers to prevent future attacks, remain dominant colonial powers

Favorable: Yugoslavia and Greece, who gained territory

Unfavorable: Bulgaria; treaty referred to as “Second National Catastrophe.” Later, in World War II, Bulgaria sided with Germany and regained lost land
Date:
August 10, 1920

Signed by:
The Ottoman Empire (Turkey), Great Britain, Italy and France

Conflict that led to the Treaty:
WWI
Won:
Britain and France:
gave Britain and France control over territories, which lead to economic benefits. For example, Britain's mandate of Iraq allowed Britain to receive many benefits from Turkish Petroleum Company (later named Iraq Petroleum Company.)
Italy:
received territories that had been promised (Dodecanese Islands)
Lost: Turkey (sided with Germany and the Central Powers)
Ceded Smyrna and East Thrace to Greece
Ceded Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands to Italy
Turkey had to renounce its claims in North Africa and the Middle East. Turkey’s colonies were divided into French and British mandates.
Turkey lost territory to Bulgaria, Italy, and Greece
Iraq and Palestine became British mandates (Britain controlled government/affairs)

Lebanon and Syria became French mandates (France controlled government/affairs)
Armenia became sovereign
Military restrictions: limit of 50 000 men, prohibited from obtaining air force,
Global Reaction
Negative Reaction:
The Treaty of Sevres has severe implications on Turkey. Turkey lost control of parts of their economy such as control over imports/exports or control over national budget as it was controlled by the Allies. She could not have economic relations with the Central Allies Germany, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria. Nationalists led by Mustafa Kemel challenged the Treaty. Kemel said that the Turkish straits should stay Turkish and that the people should not be punished for their leader actions. They drove the Greeks out of Symra (on the Aegean Sea Coast) and rejected the treaty, which led to the Treaty of Lausanne.

Neutral:
United States, who did not sign the Treaty of Sevres, and wanted nothing to do with the breaking up of the Ottoman empire.


Positive Reaction:
France, Britain, and Italy were supportive of the Treaty, as it led to territorial and economic gains, while weakening historic enemies.
Full transcript