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The Persian Wars
Transcript of The Persian Wars
7S Mt. Athos Hellespont Significance of Places There were many causes of the Persian Wars.
The most obvious was simply Persians wanted to rule all the surrounding countries around Persia. The Persians saw Greece as simply an independent nation which would make a nice addition to the Persian Empire.
The Greek cities of Ionia had asked the other Greeks to aid them in a rebellion against Persia.
The Greeks sent soldiers and supplies to the rebels and helped the Ionians burn the Persian city of Sardis to the ground.
The Persian king Darius the Great was not so amused at this and he sent a huge invasion force to punish the Greeks for their actions. Why did the Persian Wars occur? Significances Eretria- this was the first Greek city that the Persians besieged and destroyed.
Miletus- this was the big Ionian city where the rebellion was started.
Mt Athos- Xerxes excavated a channel across the Isthmus for his fleet to go through.
Thrace- here the army of Xerxes marched through unopposed.
Athens- Athens was one of the two big Greek cities that directed the war against the Persians.
Significance of each place Significance Battle of Marathon The battle of marathon took place in 490 BC.
The Athenians and the Persians were the ones involved in this battle.
Pheidippides was sent to Sparta to ask the Spartans for help or assistance with their battle against the Persians.
He completed the run in two days and immediately raced back to marathon. The Greeks won the battle because they trapped them, they were more heavily armed, they incapacitated the sites of the Persian army and the Persians' calvary went missing.
The Athenians were afraid to battle for 5 days because they thought the Persians would beat them with their calvary. But the Persians calvary went missing when they loaded it on the ships to attack the Athenians from the other side. The Athenians were more skilled at battle without calvary so the Persians were defeated by the Athenians. The Second Persian War 3 meter long spear Weaponry Shield Short sword Spear Shield A fully equipped hoplite A persian soldier A persian soldier also used swords and daggers for hand-to-hand combat. The Battle of Thermopylae The major battles of the Second Persian War were:
The battle of Thermopylae- this battle was on land and took place in 480 BC. It is a very narrow strip of land on the Aegean coast. The Persians won by their sheer numbers but were delayed and humiliated.
The battle of Artemisium- this was a naval battle on the same day as the batle of Thermopylae. It is situated on the coast of Euboea. The Persians were winning and when the Greeks heard that Thermopylae was lost they retreated.
The battle of Salamis- this battle was at sea and near Athens. It occured in 480 BC. The Greeks loured the Persian fleet into the narrow straits of Salamis where the large size of Persian ships was a disadvantage and the smaller Greek ships sank 300 Persian ships.
The battle of Plataea- this was a land battle in a hilly area north-west of Athens in 479 BC, where the combined Greek army led by the Spartans managed to capture and kill the Persian leader Mardonius. His army fell apart and the Greeks captured and killed most of them.
The battle of Mycale- this was a naval battle at the same time of the battle of Plataea and thrashed the Persians. Ionia- this was where the rebellion started against the Persians.
Thermopylae- this was where Xerxes's army was delayed and humiliated by the Spartans.
Salamis- this was where the Greek navy defeated the Persian navy.
Marathon- here the Athenians defeated the Persians. Plataea- this was one of the final battles of the Second Persian War where the greeks defeated the Persian army.
Delphi- this is where Croesus was told by the oracle that he could attack the Persians.
Aegean Sea- the Agean Sea was the sea that seperated mainland Greece from Asia Minor.
Artemisium- this is where the Persian navy defeated the Greek navy at the same time as the battle of Thermopylae.
Euboea- this is the island where Eretria is. Hellespont- here Xerxes built a huge bridge for his army to go across.
Isthmus of Corinth- this was the sea passage that seperated the Athenian territory from the Spartan territory.
Mycale- this was the sea battle on the same day as the battle of Plataea where the Greeks destroyed the Persian fleet. this was the other big Greek city that fought against the Persian.
Xerxes was the leader of the Persian side.
Leonidas was the leader of the Greek side.
Xerxes told Leonidas to surrender his weapons Leonidas replied "come and get them.
Thermopylae is a narrow coastal passage north of Delphi. The Greeks chose it because in the narrow confines the size of the Persian army wasn't a big advantage.
The Greek army built a wall acrossthe narrowest part of the passage.
For 3 days the Persians were attacking the wall and were dying in their thousands.
Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by telling the Persians of a secret passage around the mountain. The Persian army thus managed to get behind the Greeks.
When Leonidas heard this he let the Greek army go home apart from his 300 bodyguards and some Thebans and Thespians. They continued to fight until they all died, but not before they killed thousands of Persians.
The Battle of Thermopylae He was the Persian King and the leader of the Second Persian War.
He was the son of Darius.
His name meant ruling over heroes.
Greece was going to be the latest edition to the Persian empire.
He had between 200 000 and 2.5 million soldiers from 46 nations.
He also had a navy foce of 1200 ships. Xerxes The Greeks stopped the advance of the Persians towards Europe and saved the other countries in Europe from conquest.
Greece remained free and was able to continue to develop its civilization.
The disagreements between Athens and Sparta led to wars and conflict between the two cities.
Alexander The Great used the persian invasion of Greece as the excuse to invade and destroy the Persian empire more than a century later.
Legacy of the Persian Wars http://www.ancientgreekbattles.net/Pages/48070_BattleOfThermopylae.htm
Google images Books:
Billows, Richard A: Marathon, How One Battle Changed Western Civilization (Scribe 2010)
Cartledge, Paul:Thermopylae, The Battle that Changed the World (Macmillan 2006) Bibliography