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Copy of Copy of PDHPE Preliminary Core 2: The Body in Motion

The following Prezi is a summary of Core 2: The Body in Motion

Jasmine Ziher

on 16 June 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of PDHPE Preliminary Core 2: The Body in Motion

Preliminary Core 2: The Body in Motion
How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body
influence and respond to movement?
What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency?
How do biomechanical principles influence movement?
Skeletal System - JOINTS
Major bones involved in movement
Bones provide structure to the body in the same way that a frame gives
structure to a house. Bones move only because muscles pull them, often rapidly,
through specific positions, enabling activities such as throwing, kicking,
running and swimming.
An anatomical reference system called directional terms is used
to identify the location of bones.

Immovable joints or Fibrous (no movement e.g. cranium bones)
Slightly movable or cartilaginous joints (limited movement e.g. vertebral column.
Freely movable or Synovial Joints (Maximum movement e.g. hip joint
Fibrous bands that connect the articulating bones. They maintain stability in the joint
by restraining excessive movement, but can also control the degree and direction
of movement that occurs.
Tendons are tough, inelastic cords of tissue that attach
muscle to bone. Joints are further strengthened by
muscle tendons that extend across the joint and assist
ligaments to hold the joint closed.
Synovial fluid
Synovial fluid acts as a lubricant, keeping the joint
well oiled and the moving surfaces apart. Synovial fluid
forms a fluid cushion between bones. It also provides
nutrition for the cartilage and carries away waste.
Hyaline cartilage
Long bones are covered with a layer of smooth, shiny cartilage
that allows the bones to move freely over each other. Hyaline cartilage
has a limited blood supply but receives nourishment via the synovial
fluid. This cartilage is thicker in the leg joints, where there is greater weight
A student:

P7 explains how body systems influence the way the body moves
P8 describes the components of physical fitness and explains how they are monitored
P9 describes biomechanical factors that influence the efficiency of the body in motion
P10 plans for participation in physical activity to satisfy a range of individual needs
P11 assesses and monitors physical fitness levels and physical activity patterns
P16 uses a range of sources to draw conclusions about health and physical activity concepts
P17 analyses factors influencing movement and patterns of participation.

Syllabus Content:

How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement?

Students learn about:

· skeletal system
- major bones involved in movement
- structure and function of synovial joints
- joint actions, eg extension and flexion
Students learn to:

· identify the location and type of major bones involved in movement, eg long bones articulate at hinge joints for flexion and extension

· muscular system
- major muscles involved in movement
- muscle relationship (agonist, antagonist)
- types of muscle contraction (concentric, eccentric, isometric)
· identify the location of the major muscles involved in movement and related joint actions

· perform and analyse movements, eg overarm throw, by examining:
- bones involved and the joint action
- muscles involved and the type of contraction

· respiratory system
- structure and function
- lung function (inspiration, expiration)
- exchange of gases (internal, external)
· analyse the various aspects of lung function through participation in a range of physical activities

· circulatory system
- components of blood
- structure and function of the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
- pulmonary and systemic circulation
- blood pressure.
· analyse the movement of blood through the body and the influence of the circulatory and respiratory systems on movement efficiency and performance.

What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency?

Students learn about:

· health-related components of physical fitness
- cardiorespiratory endurance
- muscular strength
- muscular endurance
- flexibility
- body composition
Students learn to:

· analyse the relationship between physical fitness and movement efficiency. Students should consider the question ‘to what degree is fitness a predictor of performance?’

· skill-related components of physical fitness
- power
- speed
- agility
- coordination
- balance
- reaction time
· measure and analyse a range of both health-related and skill-related components of physical fitness

· think critically about the purpose and benefits of testing physical fitness

· aerobic and anaerobic training
–FITT principle

· immediate physiological responses to training
- heart rate
- ventilation rate
- stroke volume
- cardiac output
- lactate levels.
· design an aerobic training session based on the FITT principle

· compare the relative importance of aerobic and anaerobic training for different sports, eg gymnastics versus soccer

· examine the reasons for the changing patterns of respiration and heart rate during and after submaximal physical activity.

How do biomechanical principles influence movement?

Students learn about:

· motion
- the application of linear motion, velocity, speed, acceleration, momentum in movement and performance contexts
Students learn to:

· apply principles of motion to enhance performance through participation in practical workshops

· balance and stability
- centre of gravity
- line of gravity
- base of support
· apply principles of balance and stability to enhance performance through participation in practical workshops

· fluid mechanics
- flotation, centre of buoyancy
- fluid resistance
· apply principles of fluid mechanics to enhance performance through participation in practical workshops

· describe how principles of fluid mechanics have influenced changes in movement and performance, eg technique modification, clothing/suits, equipment/apparatus

· force
- how the body applies force
- how the body absorbs force
- applying force to an object.
· apply principles of force to enhance performance through participation in practical workshops.
How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement?
Skeletal system
Muscular system
Respiratory system
Circulatory system
Focus Question One
A study of human anatomy and physiology will help us to understand the ways in which the body responds when placed under stress; for example, during exercise or when confronted by disease.
Anatomy is the study of body structure and the relationship between body structures.
Physiology is the study of how the body works and the various functions of body parts.
Looking at the body systems is studying Anatomy and Physiology ..
Bones are classified into four different types:
Long bones - most commonly found in the arms and leg. They have a curved shape, to absorb shock and distribute pressure, a long shaft (diaphysis), which is covered by a membrane called the periosteum and two end portions (epiphyses), each of which is covered by an articular cartilage to reduce friction and absorb shock at movable joints.
The skeletal system consists of bone tissue, bone marrow, cartilage and the periosteum, which is the membrane around bones.
The Structure of the Skeletal System
short bones - which are often cube shaped, and can be found in the wrists, ankles, fingers and toes
flat bones - which appear to be flattened out, and include bones in the skull and breastbone
irregular bones – are those which are unusually shaped to fit into a variety of positions. Examples include the vertebra, facial bones and shoulder blade.
Two other types of bone are classified by location, not shape:
sesamoid bones, which are small bones embedded in tendons where pressure develops; for example, the patella (kneecap)
sutural bones, which are small bones located between the joints of some cranial bones.
Other Bone Types
The functions of the skeleton and bone tissue include:
support—they provide a framework for attachment of soft connective tissue, such as muscles
protection—they protect internal organs; for example, the ribs protect the heart and lungs
movement—when muscles contract they pull on bones and produce movement
mineral storage—in particular they store calcium and phosphorus, which are released when needed
blood cell production—most blood cell formation occurs within the red bone marrow
storage of energy—yellow bone marrow is a stored source of lipids in the bones.
What does the Skeletal System do?
Our joints provide us with mobility. A joint (articulation) is the point at which bones meet and articulate with each other. Joints allow movement and hold the skeleton together.
Joints can be classified according to their structure or based on the type of functional movement that they permit. A joint can be one of the following:
fibrous—the bones have no joint cavity, and they are held together by strong connective tissue
cartilaginous—the bones have no joint cavity, and they are held together by cartilage
synovial—the bones have a joint cavity, and they are held together by ligaments and separated by synovial fluid in the joint cavity.
(SS 2) Structure and Function of Joints
All synovial joints are movable, and therefore account for most of our movement.
Performance in most sporting activities relies heavily on the stability and function of synovial joints. Their stability and function are provided by a number of important structures.
Synovial joints allow movement in out bodies.

The range of movement is dependent on the type of joint.
For example –
gliding joint—side-to-side or back-and-forth movement is permitted across these simple, usually flat surfaces; Eg - between the carpals and the tarsals.
hinge joint—the convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another, and movement occurs in one plane. Eg - elbow joint and knee joint.
pivot joint—the primary movement is rotation, where the rounded or pointed surface of one bone articulates with the depression or opening of another; Eg - 1st and 2nd vertebra, between the proximal joint of the radius and ulna.
Function of Synovial Joints
(SS 3) Joint Actions
Muscles convert chemical energy into mechanical energy to create a force, and this allows us to move.
There are three basic functions that muscle tissue serves through contracting and relaxing. Muscles can:
produce movement to walk, run, jump, breathe, digest and excrete
provide stabilisation of posture and internal organs
generate heat to maintain body temperature
Muscular System
There are three types of muscle tissue in the body:
Skeletal muscle - is primarily attached to bones, and it moves the skeleton. It is said to be striated because of its obvious striped appearance. We control the contractions, so it is a voluntary muscle.
Cardiac muscle - forms most of the heart. This muscle is striated and, its movement is said to be involuntary.
Smooth muscle - is located on the walls of our internal structures, such as the stomach, blood vessels and intestines. It is non-striated, and its movement is usually involuntary.
When we refer to the muscular system, we are referring to the skeletal muscle only.
Muscle Tissue
Muscles can be classified functionally into three groups:
agonists (prime movers)—the agonist muscle contracts and shortens to provide the main force for movement. There are agonists for each joint and usually more than one is involved with an action.
(SS 5) Muscle Relationships
When a muscle is stimulated, it attempts to contract. The contractions may happen in a number of ways.
Isotonic contractions involve a change in the length of the muscle. That is, it becomes shorter (concentric) or longer (eccentric).
Isometric contractions is a form of static contraction, where the muscle develops tension, however the length does not change.
(SS 6) Types of Muscle Contraction
Structures of Synovial Joints
Three types of joints
Analysis of Movement Action
Drew Storren - Baseball Pitch
The Respiratory System is the bodily system that delivers oxygen from the air we breathe to the body, and removes the metabolic wastes, such as carbon dioxide. This occurs via the bloodstream.

Glucose + O2 = CO2 + H2O + energy
(from food) (breathe in) (breathe out) (sweat) (for movement)
(SS 7) Function
Air containing oxygen (O2) travels from the atmosphere into the NOSE, where it is warmed.
It moves down the PHARYNX, past the LARYNX (voice box) into the TRACHEA (windpipe).
The trachea is a large tube reinforced by cartilage rings and cleansed by mucus and cells with tiny cilia, or hairs, on them.
At the base of the trachea are two major branches – called the left and right BRONCHUS.
Air moves through each bronchus into the BRACHIAL TREE of each lung.
(SS 7) Structure
The two lungs are housed in the thoracic cavity, which is separated from the abdomen by a thick muscle band called the DIAPHRAGM.
They are protected by the RIB CAGE.
Each lung contains one BRONCHUS, which divides into BRONCHI.
These bronchi divide into BRONCHIOLES, which branch into ALVEOLI DUCTS.
Attached to the walls of these ducts are thin walled ALVEOLAR SACS, which contain the ALVEOLI.
(SS 7) Structure cont..
The lungs are responsible for respiration.
Respiration is the exchange of gases between the cells, blood and atmosphere.
It involves four processes:
pulmonary ventilation (breathing)—movement of air from the atmosphere into the alveoli.
pulmonary diffusion—exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood.
transport of respiratory gases—transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the tissue cells of the body via the blood.
internal respiration—exchange of gases between the blood capillaries and the tissue cells.
(SS 8) Lung Function
Breathing allows a continuous flow of air from the outside into and out of the lung alveoli.
At rest, an adult averages 12 respirations in one minute, resulting in the movement of 6 litres of air into and out of the lungs per minute.
Air flows into the body and out of it for the same reason that blood flows through the body: a pressure gradient exists.
Gases will generally move from areas of high pressure into areas of lower pressure.
(SS 8) Breathing
The diaphragm contracts and descends.
The intercostal muscles (between the ribs) raise the ribs and push out the sternum.
The thoracic cavity enlarges.
Pressure in the lungs in reduced and air rushes in from the atmosphere.
The diaphragm relaxes, causing it to raise.
The intercostal muscles relax.
The thoracic cavity returns to its normal size.
Pressure in the lungs is increased and the air is forced out.
When we breathe, we exchange oxygen (O2) in the air we breathe in, with carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood, which is a metabolic waste product our cells produce.
Gases spread from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration, to make the levels equal in both places.
Gas exchange occurs in between the alveoli/capillaries in the lungs and, between the muscle cells/capillaries in the body.
(SS 9) Exchange of Gases
Air breathed in which makes its way to the alveoli is high in O2, low in CO2.
Blood in the capillaries that has returned to the lungs in the capillaries in high in CO2, low in O2.
O2 diffuses into the blood to be taken to the muscle cells which need it for energy production.
CO2 diffuses back into the lungs so it can be breathed out into the atmosphere.
In the lungs..
Blood coming from the lungs in the capillaries is high in O2, low in CO2.
The muscle cells are high in CO2 and low in O2.
O2 diffuses from the capillaries into the cells to be used for energy production.
CO2 diffuses from the muscle cells into the blood to be returned to the lungs where it can be breathed out.
In the muscle cells..
Respiratory System
The cardiovascular system, or circulatory system, consists of the heart, blood and blood vessels.
Together with the lymphatic system, the cardiovascular system delivers oxygen and nutrients to cells, removes waste from cells and maintains the balance of water in the body.
The cardiovascular system is primarily responsible for transporting the materials required by muscles to produce contractions, force and action.
An inefficient delivery system will result in an inefficient supply of blood to and from muscles, and therefore inefficient movement.
Circulatory System
Blood is a specialised type of connective tissue—it is a thick liquid that is heavier and more viscous (thicker) than water.
Its colour depends on the amount of oxygen it is carrying, varying from dark red (oxygen poor) to scarlet red (oxygen rich).
Blood accounts for about 8 per cent of our total body weight.
Healthy adult males have around 5–6 litres of blood and females about 4–5 litres.
Blood in the body has the following roles –
transports nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, waste products and hormones to cells and organs around the body.
protects us from bleeding to death (via clotting) and protects us from disease (by destroying invasive microorganisms) and toxic substances.
acts as a regulator of temperature and the water content in cells.
Function of Blood
The liquid portion of blood is a straw-coloured substance called plasma. It makes up 55 per cent of the volume of blood
The other 45 per cent of blood is made up of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
(SS 10) Components of Blood
Red blood cells –
Gives blood its red colour (haemoglobin).
Produced in the bone marrow.
Haemoglobin combines with O2 and carries it to other cells of the body, along with other nutrients.
White blood cells –
Produced in bone marrow and lymph glands.
Helps fight off disease.
(SS 10) cont..
Platelets –
Responsible for the repair of slightly damaged blood vessels.
Essential in the process of blood-clotting.
Plasma –
is a straw coloured liquid that remains when the red and white blood cells are removed from the blood.
Is made of 90% water, nutrients, wastes, proteins, hormones and enzymes.
(SS 10) cont..
The circulatory system provides the body with the oxygen and nutrients it needs to keep you alive and healthy.
The heart is the pump at the centre of the system, which circulates blood to all parts of the body.
Blood is circulated via a network of blood vessels called arteries and veins.
(SS 11) Structures and Functions of the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries
The Heart
The heart is a muscle which acts as a pump to push blood through the body.
It is made of cardiac muscle, which is striated and involuntary, meaning it contracts without you having to control it.
The interior of the heart is divided into four chambers – right and left atrium and the right and left ventricles.
Each chamber is separated by valves and there is a thick wall between the two halves called the septum.
(SS 11) The Heart
Arteries carry blood away from the heart to tissues.
They have thick, elastic walls because blood is pumped through them at high pressure in surges.
The arteries become smaller at their ends, further away from the heart. The pressure decreases as blood is passed through small vessels known as arterioles.
(SS 11) Arteries
Veins carry blood from tissues back to the heart.
The walls of veins are thinner and less elastic than artery walls, because the pressure decreases as the blood gets closer to the heart.
(SS 11) Veins
Valves within veins prevent the blood from flowing back the wrong way against the force of gravity.
Sometimes after standing for a long time you may notice that your legs feel heavy and swollen. This is a result of blood pooling in the lower legs because of gravity and lack of movement.
The small vessels at the ends of veins are called venules.
(SS 11) cont..
Capillaries are very small networks of vessels through which nutrients are exchanged between blood and the cells of the body.
They lie between arterioles and venules, connecting both systems.
(SS 11) Capillaries
The heart is a double pump that serves two circulations.
Two types of blood circuits are created:
Pulmonary circulation – blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs, then back to the heart.
Systemic circulation (circuit) pumps blood from the left side of the heart out to all body tissues, then back to the right side of the heart.
When looking at blood flow, the colour blue represents deoxygenated blood and the colour red represents oxygenated blood.
(SS 12) Pulmonary and
Systemic Circulation
Used blood which is low in O2 enters the right atrium of the heart through the vena cava.
Valves prevent the blood from flowing the wrong way.
As the right atrium fills, it contracts and squeezes the blood into the left ventricle.
The right ventricle contracts and pushes the blood into the pulmonary artery, into the lungs.
This is where the blood exchanges it’s CO2 for fresh O2.
(SS 12) Pulmonary Circulation
This O2 rich blood then travels from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary vein.
As the left atrium fills, it contracts pushing the blood into the left ventricle.
The contraction of the left ventricle causes the blood to flow into the aorta, the main artery transporting the O2 rich blood around the body.
(SS 12) Systemic Circulation
Blood Flow in the Body
Blood pressure (BP) is the force blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels.
It is expressed in terms of millimetres of mercury (mmHg).
For example, a blood pressure of 120 mmHg is the pressure exerted by a column of mercury 120 millimetres high.
During exercise of increasing intensity, BP changes with the increases in cardiac output.
(SS 13) Blood Pressure
It is represented by the systolic pressure (contraction) over diastolic pressure (relaxation).
A normal resting adult BP rises to around 120 mmHg during systole (contraction) and to 80 mmHg during diastole (relaxation) – 120/80 +/-10mmHg.
Systolic blood pressure increases in direct proportion to increases in intensity, thereby facilitating the delivery of blood. Exercise should be stopped if systolic BP goes above 250 mmHg.
Diastolic blood pressure changes very little during exercise. If it increases 15 mmHg or more above resting levels, exercise should be stopped.
(SS 12) Blood Pressure cont..
Circulatory System

The ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to supply oxygen and nutrients efficiently to working muscles and remove waste products.
Important in endurance events such as cycling, triathlons, and marathon running.
(SS 14) Cardiorespiratory Endurance
The ability of a muscle to produce force for a single effort. Good muscular strength helps us to take part in vigorous activity without getting tired.
Important in weightlifting, gymnastics, rugby
(SS 15) Muscular Strength
The ability to sustain or repeat a muscular effort for a relatively long period of time. For example – being able to do 100 sit ups requires abdominal muscles to have good endurance.
Important in cycling, cross-country running, skiing, rowing, boxing
(SS 16) Muscular Endurance
Range of motion about a joint.
The more flexible we are, the better the ability we have to move joints and use our muscles through their full movements. It is important in preventing injury and improving posture.
Most sports require flexibility to prevent injury; Flexibility is especially important in gymnastics, dancing, diving.
(SS 17) Flexibility
Refers to the percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (bone, muscle, organs, connective tissue).
Too much body fat makes the organs have to work harder.
Good body composition is important for general health and physical performance; and especially in ballet, body building.
(SS 18) Body Composition
Health Related Components of Fitness
Skill Related Components of Fitness
The combination of strength and speed in an explosive action.
That is, how quickly you can apply muscular strength. For example, being able to exert a large amount of force quickly.
Power is important in running, throwing, jumping sports, such as long jump, discus, shot put, sprint events.
(SS 19) Muscular Power
The ability to perform body movements quickly.
Speed is hard to train for as it is predominantly determined by muscle fibre type, that is, whether the person has more fast-twitch or slow-twitch muscle fibres.
Speed is important for sprint events, team games, softball.
(SS 20) Speed
The ability to maintain speed whilst changing direction.
It combines a number of fitness components, including balance, coordination and speed.
Agility is important in team sports (soccer, hockey, AFL, rugby), boxing, karate.
(SS 21) Agility
Good interaction between the brain and muscles which allows us to use two or more body parts at once.
Hitting or catching a ball requires hand-eye coordination and kicking or dribbling a soccer ball requires foot-eye coordination.
Coordination is an important aspect of all sports.
(SS 22) Coordination
The ability to maintain stability and equilibrium while either stationary (static) or moving (dynamic).
All activities require a degree of balance; Dynamic balance is especially important in gymnastics, snowboarding, ballet, surfing.
(SS 23) Balance
The time taken to respond to a stimulus.
In this time, the body receives this message and sends information to the muscles required for the movement.
For example, when a bowler is bowling a ball, the batsman must react to each different bowl.
Reaction time is needed for ‘starts’ in athletics and swimming, shooting, as well as in team games when reacting to the actions of other players.
(SS 24) Reaction Time
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