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ATTR 362 Electrical Stimulation
Transcript of ATTR 362 Electrical Stimulation
-force created by the imbalance of electrons
What is an electron?
The force of electricity is called electromagnetic force, potential difference, or voltage
Electrical Stimulating Currents
A current that has been modified for specific biophysical effects.
-unidirectional flow of interrupted current (DC)
-bidirectional flow of interrupted current (DC)
Measures of Electrical Current Flow
Know and Understand This!
I = V/R
where I = current, V = voltage, and R = resistance
Describe Coulomb's Law in One Sentence
Two Minutes Only!!
The resistance to flow
Inductance - ability to store electrical energy in electromagnetic field, negligible in biological tissues
Capacitance - ability to store energy by means of electrostatic field, cell membranes act as capacitors
Relationship between Voltage and Amperage
Amperage - Rate of electrical current flow (I)
Voltage - The POTENTIAL for electron flow (V)
Wattage - Used to designate the power of a current (W)
W = V x I
Excitable Tissue - nerves, muscle fibers, and cell membranes. Directly influenced by electrical current.
Nonexcitable Tissues - bone, cartilage, tendons, adipose, ligaments. Not directly influenced by electrical current.
Therapeutic Uses of Electrical Current
Facilitating Tissue Healing
Facilitating Muscle Re-education
Facilitating Fracture Healing
Effecting orthotic substitution
Path of Least Resistance
Electrodes and Electrode Sizes
Metal or carbon filled silicon
Junction point with unit and body
Must create a CLOSED Circuit
Need to reduce skin resistance!!
Current flow inversely related to electrode size
Less current required in smaller electrodes
Selective Stimulation of Nerves
Subsensory - Zero to first perception - No Benefit
Sensory - Only sensory nerves, no contraction
Motor - Muscle contracts with no pain
Noxious - Stimulates pain fibers
Muscle Fiber - Direct muscle depolarization
With the exception of wound healing, bone growth stimulators, and iontophoresis, clinical stimulation affects the nerves and has little, if any direct effect on the inflammatory process
Current Attributes Which Can Be Manipulated
Pulse Amplitude (Intensity)
Pulse Frequency for Muscle Contractions
E-STIM for Pain Control
As Painful as tolerated
Control and Reduction of Edema
Motor-level swelling reduction appears to be less effective in the acute inflammatory phase of injury response than in later stages
Provide at least 5 contraindications and 2 precautions for electrotherapy
No agreement on parameters.
Pain and Re-education