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Richard Stiggins : Access what? Access how? Clear Targets and Learning Methods

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Emily Suber

on 24 September 2012

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Transcript of Richard Stiggins : Access what? Access how? Clear Targets and Learning Methods

Assess What? Assess How? Clear Targets and Learning Methods Emily Suber
Sifa Butts
Ashley Largo
Amelia Underwood “If You Don’t Know Where You Are Headed,
You’ll Probably End Up Someplace Else.” –Douglas J. Eder, Ph.D Stiggins' Chapters 3 & 4 Video- Learning Target Selected Response

Written Response

Performance Assessment

Personal Communication ASSESSMENT METHODS Students select the correct or “best” response
Multiple choice
Fill-in-the-blank questions SELECTED RESPONSE WRITTEN RESPONSE Requires students to construct answer in response to a question or task rather than select answer from a list
Short answer: brief response with limited range of possible answers
Extended response: response several sentences in length PERFORMANCEASSESSMENT Based on observation and judgments
Used to judge both real-time performances
(demonstrations) and products (artifacts) that students create

EX: playing an instrument, reading aloud with
fluency, term paper, lab report Find out what students have learned through structured and unstructured interactions with them
Asking questions during instruction
Interviewing in conferences
Listening as they participate/perform in class
Oral exams
Journals and logs PERSONAL
COMMUNICATION Matching Assessment Methods to Learning Targets Accuracy of classroom assessment depends on selecting the appropriate assessment method that matches the achievement target
Information gathered more efficiently
Results in more accurate information
Better informs instruction Selected Response: good job of assessing isolated elements of knowledge

Written Response: especially useful for assessing blocks
of interrelated knowledge and conceptual understanding

Performance: can sometimes lack accuracy, efficiency, and practicality

Personal Communication: works well for formative purposes Assessing Knowledge Targets Assessing Reasoning Targets Selected Response: Can assess many but not all reasoning targets,
sometimes deeper evidence is needed

Written Response: Strong match if question posed correctly

Performance: assess in the context of certain tasks and contexts

Personal Communication: teachers are able to probe more deeply into a response Assessing Skill Targets Selected Response: poor match, very limiting

Written Response: will not yield accurate information

Performance: effective method

Personal Communication: only good when assessing oral proficiency Assessing Product Targets Selected Response: poor match, only used to
determine if possess prerequisite knowledge required

Written Response: only appropriate if target specifies
the creation of written product

Performance: very effective for determining if students can create
specific product

Personal Communication: Same as written response Deconstruction of Content Standards
-State, District, School's Involvement
-The Process
1.) Determine Target Type
2.) Examine Underlying Target Types
3.) Check for Accuracy Where do I even begin?! It is crucial as teachers that we... Communicate!
Clear Learning targets
Visual and audio
"we are
learning to..." How can we help?... Benefits to Teachers
*Knowing what to teach
*Knowing what to assess
*Knowing what instructional activities to plan
*“Coverage” vs. Learning
*Assessment results and interpretations
*Tracking and reporting information
*Collaborative teaching

Benefits to Students
*Understand what they are responsible for learning
*Understand feedback
*Learn to self-assess and set goals
*Track, reflect, and share progress “Students can hit any target they see and that holds still for them”
-Rick Stiggins How to Create Clear Targets
Learning Targets
statements of the intended learning
some represent the ultimate learning desire
some represent the day-to-day learning TYPES OF LEARNING TARGETS: *Knowledge Targets
*Reasoning Targets
*Skill Targets
*Product Targets
*Disposition Targets Knowledge Targets
*Factual Information
“knows, lists, names, identifies, recalls”
*Conceptual Understanding
Student can explain the concept
*Knowing via Reference
Classifying Targets as Knowledge:
knows” and “understands” is not
always about knowledge REASONING TARGETS
Inductive and Deductive
A reasonable guess based on information or clues
Examining the components or structure of something
Describing similarities or differences between two or more items
To compare and contrast *Classification
Sorting things into categories based on certain characteristics
Expressing and defending a point of view, opinion, judgment, or decision
Combining discrete elements to create something new
*Classifying Targets as Reasoning
“Who is doing the reasoning?” Skill Targets
*Learning targets where a real-time demonstration or physical performance is at the heart of the learning
Classifying Targets as Skills:
Difference between reasoning (cognitive “skills”) and skill targets Product Targets:
*Specifications for qualities of a good product are the focus of teaching and assessment
*Classifying Targets as Products
Product Targets are not activities, they are part of the content standard Disposition Targets:
*Reflect attitude and feeling
*Not assessed for the purpose of grading Provides a clear vision of the intended learning and points the way for teaching and assessing
Link each years targets to the previous and following years to provide continuity
Link to whatever standards form the basis for accountability testing
States learning targets What makes a good curriculum guide? Assessment Development Cycle *Planning Stage (4 steps)
*Development Stage (2 steps)
*Use Stage (2 steps)

*Goal- For our assessments to yield accurate results on student achievements.
* The Assessment Development Cycle applies to any
type of assessment intended for the classroom use:
can be formative or summative. How do we determine a students level of achievement? PLANNING STAGE Step 1: Determining Users & Uses (planning decision is to determine)

1) Who will use info?
2) How and why will they use it?
3) Is the use formative or summative? PLANNING STAGE Cont... Step 2: Specify the Intended Learning Target

-Specifying the intended learning target is important due to
the depth of a learning target affects how much coverage it will
need on the assessment and in instruction.
-Classifying target is important because different target types require different assessment methods. Step 3: Selecting the Appropriate Assessment methods
Match appropriate assessment methods to learning targets. PLANNING STAGE Cont... PLANNING STAGE Cont... Step 4: Determine the Appropriate Sample Size
Sample Challenge:

1)What will be the scope of coverage of this assessment?
2) What will be the importance of the standards or learning targets to be assessed? Step 5:
*Develop or select items, exercises, or tasks and scoring instruments adhering to guidelines for quality specific to each method
Step 6:
* Review and critique the assessment before using it. Assessment Development Stage Use Stage of the Cycle Step 7
*Administer and score the test

Step 8
* Double check that the test did do what we wanted it to for students What do you think? 1. What are some issues you may encounter with your students if assessments are misaligned with learning objectives or instructional strategies? 2. Do you think disposition targets are as important as the others? Why or why not? How would you measure disposition targets in your classroom? 3. What are ways students can be more involved in the assessment process? 4. Is it common for bias/ distortion to be evident in most assessment of students? How so and what can we do as educators to fix this? References

Pearson Assessment Training Institute: http://ati.pearson.com/

Marzano, R., D. Pickering, & J. McTighe. 1993. Assessing student outcomes: Performance assessment using the dimensions of learning model. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory

O’Connor, K. 2011. How to grade for learning: Linking grades to standards, 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Mager, Robert, F. Preparing Instructional Objectives. Atlanta: The Center for Effective Performance, 1997.

Taylor, C. (1994). Assessment for measurement or standards: The peril and promise of large scale assessment reform. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 231-262.

http://www.bullittschools.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Converting-Learning-Targets-to-Student-Friendly-Language.pdf Textbooks Influence
1.)Too much content
2.) Importance

Projects and Thematic Units
1.)Content standards
2.) TIme filler Written vs. Taught Curriculum USE THE FOLLOWING DESCRIPTIONS:

Strong Match: The method works for all learning targets of this type

Good Match: This method works for many of the learning targets of this type

Partial Match: The method works in some instances for learning targets of this type

Poor Match: The method never works for learning targets of this type Target-Method Match Activity
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