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Iridium

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Katie Marshall

on 16 June 2011

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Transcript of Iridium

Iridium Discovery Mining Uses Price Refinery Disposal and Recycling Iridium was discovered in 1803. It was discovered by Smithson Tennant. Location Science MSDS CAS Number Placard Sign It was discovered amongst insoluble impurities in natural Platinum. Who, When and How. It was named after the Goddess Iris because of the spectular colours that it reflects Insoluble impurities are impuritites
that will not dissolve. The Goddess Iris is the personification of the rainbow in Greek Mythology. Has a melting point of 2466° Celcius, therefore it can be used in many high temperature applications such as:
High temperature crucibles
Computer memory devices
Solid state lasers
Spark plugs In 2007, the global demand for Iridium was 3,700kg. Out of this;
780kg was used for electrical uses, such as spark plugs.
1,100kg was used for electrochemical appliances such as electrodes.
750kg used for Catalysis.
1,070kg was used for other purposes. Because of the spectacular colours it creates, many motorsport drivers have an iridium coating on their helmet visor for aesthetics. The unit of measurement for Iridium, and other precious metals is the Troy Ounce (otz). One Troy Ounce is equal to 31.1034768 grams. In 2007, Iridium was at a price of $440 USD/otz. In 2010 the price rose to over $750 USD/otz. Year Price (USD/ozt)
2001 415.25
2002 294.62
2003 93.02
2004 185.33
2005 169.51
2006 349.45
2007 440.00 This table shows the price of Iridium from 2001-2007. The CAS registry number of Iridium is 7439-88-5. Odd Facts Iridium is the most corrosion-resistant metal known. It has the ninth highest melting point of all the elements. It is one of the least abundant elements in the Earth's crust. Within the Earth's crust, Iridium is found at highest concentrations in three types of geologic structure: igneous deposits, impact craters, and deposits reworked from one of the former structures. It is thought that the overall concentration of iridium on Earth is much higher than what is observed in rocks on the crust of the Earth, because of the density and siderophilic ("iron-loving") character of iridium, it descended below the crust and into the Earth's core when the planet was still molten. The largest known primary reserves are in the Bushveld igneous complex in South Africa, although the large copper–nickel deposits near Norilsk in Russia, and the Sudbury Basin in Canada are also fairly large sources of Iridium. Iridium is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing. During electrorefining of copper and nickel, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum group metals as well settle to the bottom of the cell as anode mud, which forms the starting point for their extraction. In order to separate the metals, they must first be brought into solution. Several methods are available depending on the separation process and the composition of the mixture; two representative methods are fusion with sodium peroxide followed by dissolution in aqua regia, and dissolution in a mixture of chlorine with hydrochloric acid. The Placard sign of an element shows the dangers associated with a certain element, and if any Personal Protective Equipment should be worn. After it is dissolved, Iridium is separated from the other platinum group metals by extracting impuritites with organic amines. When Iridium has been used, it is returned to the supplier, who then takes it to the correct recycling and disposal depot. The first method is similar to the procedure Tennant used for his separation. The second method can be planned as continuous liquid–liquid extraction and is therefore more suitable for industrial scale production. In either case, the product is reduced using hydrogen, yielding the metal as a powder or sponge that can be treated using powder metallurgy techniques. There are many precious metal recycling companies that will buy scrap metal and then use their own resources to recycle it and sell it on to someone else. A lot of Iridium is not recycled (such as the Iridium on spark plugs), and is just put into landfill with everything else. Iridium Details Number 77 on the Periodic Table. Its symbol is Ir. Iridium is the second densest element, after Osmium. In the Platinum family. Transition metal. Atomic weight of 192.22 The order of electrons on the shells are 2, 8, 18, 32, 15, 2.
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