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South-North water transfer project
Transcript of South-North water transfer project
We must also consider the future. Well... seems like The South-North water transfer project is essential for China...
CONCLUSION Availability of water resources is important for the China's economic growth.
The South-to-North water transfer project is a possible solution to China's problem of water distribution but it has undesirable environmental and societal effects. These costs far out-way any potential benefits, therefore the South-to-North water transfer project is inviable.
Background The South-to-North water transfer project is China's largest water diversion scheme which plans to divert 44.8 billion cubic meters of water annually to the dry northern China from the south, where it is rich in water resources.
This project can be done by constructing three diversion routes stretching south to north across the eastern, central and western areas of the country. REFERENCES What is the
South - to - North water transfer project in China? Biswas, A, Dakang, Z, Nickum, J & Changming, Liu 1983, Long distance water transfer - A Chinese case study and international experiences, United Nations university press, Japan.
Yan, D, Wang, H, Li, H, Wang, G, Qin, T, Wang D & Wang, L 2012, 'Quantitative analysis on the environmental impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment', Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.
Water-technology.net 2003, Net resource international, United Kingdom viewed 29 April 2013, <http://www.water-technology.net/projects/south_north/>.
Yan, T & Fajun, Y 2006, 'Three Gorges Project: Effects of resettlement on the environment in the reservoir area and countermeasures', Springer science+business media, pp. 351-371.
Liu, J, Wan, J 2001 Environmental impact of the South-to-North water transfer project, American Society of Civil Engineering, America, viewed 29 April 2013, <http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/40569%282001%29330>.
Food and agriculture organization 2012, The world bank, Washington D.C. viewed 1 May 2013, <http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ER.H2O.INTR.PC>.
Min K, Three Gorges, Infinite Reasons, University of California Irvine, United States viewed 1 May 2013, <http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/state/kmin.html>. (BBC 2010) The three diversion routes of the
South-North water transfer project As a country, China is rich in water resources, however their water resources per capita is 1/4 of the world's average.
Northern China has been a center of population, agriculture and industry and they are still growing apace, about 80% of the nation's water is in the South near Yangtze river basin.
Due to this lack of water in the north, northern China's available water per capita is keeps falling and over exploitation of groundwater causes land subsidence and sandstorms.
In 1952, chairman Mao proposed the idea of South-North water transfer project to overcome this undistributed water issue.
After 50 years of research and planning, the project was authorized and commenced constructing from the eastern route in 2002.
Both the eastern and central routes are now largely complete, however the western route is yet to commence.
The expected costs of this project is $62billion Total renewable water : 2829.6 cubic km
(6th in the world)
Renewable water per capita : 2093 cubic m
(88th in the world) Water statistics in China Water deficit = Restrict Economic growth Impacts of The South-to-North water transfer project Water levels
Salinization of the soil
Water quality / pollution
Loss of land
Displacement of people
Safety aspect Impacts on the environment On the eastern route of the diversion project, a 1150 km long main canal needs to pass through a numbers of lakes, including China's fourth largest freshwater lake, Hongze lake to transfer water all the way up to Tianjin.
This large-scale water diversion will raise the water level of these lakes and in the meantime, the lake's water flow and sediments will shift.
These environmental factors will influence the aquatic ecosystems of lakes in the future.
Yu Xuefang, hydrobiologist of Academia Sinica predicts that the number of large herbivorous fish will decrease and the number of small fish will increase in the long term at various lakes. Three Gorges Dam (case study) Three Gorges Dam in China is the world's largest hydro power project of the present.
Establishment of this dam enables to generate 100 billion kWh of electricity every year. (about 10% of the annual total electricity use in China.)
Seemingly the project achieved a success, however many problems also accompany the project.
Economic and technical issues
Loss of the cultural relics Extent of the environmental effects after the establishment of Three Gorges Dam Process of constructing the dam Problems caused by Three Gorges Dam After the commencement of the Three Gorges Dam's construction, the number of Yangtze river's indigenous dolphin (Yangtze river dolphin) started decreasing. In a research investigation conducted in 2006 on the river's ecosystem no were no dolphins sound.
Migration problem is one of the most difficult issues in this project. At the point of December 2012, 1.4million people were forced to migrate due to construction of the dam. Apparently the immigrants were not receiving sufficient financial aids and this is caused devastating social problems.
Due to the rapid construction work and enormous amount of water pressure, there were 132 landslide accidents which happened before the year of 2008. Discussion From the case study of the Three Gorges Dam project we know that the impacts caused by the South-North water transfer project will be unbounded.
Change in the ecological system might be small now but in a long term period it might cause a severe problem because the change in environment slowly changes the chain of ecology.
Large-scale migration will also be needed in future. About 50,000 ha of land will be taken up by the 1,265 km long canal of the middle route, and there will be another two 1000 km level canals in this project which will undoubtedly far exceed the number of migrants sacrificed by the Three Gorges Dam project.
It is possible to avoid a few problems such as water pollution by investing more funds in engineering works.
However, considering the amount of financial aids to immigrants and expected costs of $62bn, it is difficult for the Chinese government to invest extra funds.
These are the reasons why I am against this project and I highly support the termination of the construction of Western route which has not commenced establishing due to climatic and engineering difficulties so we can minimize the impacts on environment and society.
We are responsible for the future generation's water as well.