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Chapter 4: Section A

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Meilani Williams

on 2 November 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 4: Section A

Chapter 4: Operating Systems

Operating System Basics
Background Definitions:

multitasking
: provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously

multithreading
: allows multiple parts, or threads, to run simultaneously in a single program

memory leak:
a situation in which instructions and data from one area of memory overflow into memory allocated to another program


User Interfaces
The Boot Process
Your computer’s small bootstrap program is built into special ROM circuitry housed in the computer’s system unit
Reads hard drive boot sector
During the boot process, the operating system kernel is loaded into RAM
The kernel provides essential operating system services

OS Activities
Operating System Categories:
Single-user
Multiuser
Server
Desktop
Handheld

The Boot Process
OS Tasks
An operating system is a type of system software that acts as the
master controller
for all activities that take place within a computer system

a collection of programs which control the resources of a computer system
written in low-level languages (i.e. machine-dependent)
an interface between the users and the hardware
when the computer is on, OS will first load into the main memory
[2]
Motivation
An Automated Teller Machine (ATM) process

process to deposit an amount into an account
:
deposit (account, amount) {
read ( account, balance ); // read balance from database
balance = balance + amount; // add deposit amount
write (account, balance ); // update database
}
process to withdraw an amount from an account
:
withdraw ( account, amount ) {
read (account, balance); // read balance from database
balance = balance - amount; // subtract withdrawal amount
write ( account, balance); // update database
}

Reference [1]
[1]
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGIQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dcs.ed.ac.uk%2Fteaching%2Fcs3%2Fos%2Fslides2Fintro.ppt&ei=tWBPU97VBuHz0gGThYHQBA&usg=AFQjCNEIiQWW5VdeSlVZzP2z3pE6U65fUQ&sig2=GAQGTGX_iFL0gr6umX63iQ&bvm=bv.64764171,d.dmQ

[2] http://www.slideshare.net/vabajaj/operating-systemppt-1

[3] http://www.yourdictionary.com/command-line

[4] http://www.conceptdraw.com/solution-park/software-mac-os-user-interface
References
Command Line Cheat Sheets

Windows
http://www.sans.org/security-resources/sec560/windows_command_line_sheet_v1.pdf
http://ss64.com/nt/
http://blog.simplyadvanced.net/cheat-sheet-for-windows-command-prompt/
http://www.kossboss.com/windows---command-line-cheat-sheet-for-administration-and-networking
MAC OS X
http://alexyoung.org/terminal_cheat_sheet.pdf
https://github.com/0nn0/terminal-mac-cheatsheet/wiki/Terminal-Cheatsheet-for-Mac-(-basics-)
http://software.clapper.org/cheat-sheets/mac-os-x.html
http://i.imgur.com/1c9y0.png
For single-user workstation

For multiple-user server
file,compute, mail, web servers etc.

For mainframe systems
transaction processing
database systems

For real-time systems (e.g MRI machines)
time-critical applications
industrial process control
hard rather than soft deadlines

Handheld/Mobile
Android
iOS
Firefox OS
Ubuntu



OS Categories

"The question is not will you be discouraged, but what will you do when you are discouraged? "

Elevation Church
Microsoft Windows offers its users controls to do the following activities:

Launch programs
Manage files
Get help
Customize the user interface
Configure equipment
OS Activities
OS Tasks
Task Descriptions - See Figure 4-2 and 4-3

Multitasking
provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously

Multiprocessing:
capability supports a division of labor among all the processing units

A
memory leak
is when an application requests memory but never releases it
Can cause an application not to function properly

Announcements
Required Reading
:
Operating Systems & File Management
Chapter 4: Sections B & E

Ongoing
:
Research Paper
Excel 4

Upcoming:

PowerPoint 3

Other functions of OS
Best use of the computer resources
Display and deal with errors when they happen
Control the selection and operation of the peripherals
Act as a communication link between users


[2]

Detailed Overview
Full transcript