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Ghuelfs and Ghibellines
Transcript of Ghuelfs and Ghibellines
In Italy it was a feud "between the Holy Roman Emperor Frederic II and Pope Innocent the IV" (Mad for Monaco 1). But the feud originated in "the 12th centry from the names of rival German houses in their struggle for the title of the Holy Roman Empire" (Dantemass 1).
The Welfs and Hohenstaufens were the houses from which the Guelphs and Ghibellines arose. The Welfs were a duke family from Bavaria, the Hahenstaufens from Swabia (Wikipedia 1-2).
The Hohenstaufen family was opposed to the German king of 1125 and the Holy Roman Emperor of 1133. This ignited the feud between them and the Welf family (Dantemass 1).
Frederick Barbossa brought the names to Italy with his military campaigns there, and his supporters were called the Ghibellines. The Lombard League sprung up to defend against the emperor, and its supporters were called the Guelphs (Wikipedia 2).
Most of Italy "split into Guelph and Ghibelline factions, with the Guelphs supporting the pope and the Ghibellines supporting the emperor
People who were a part of the Ghibelline faction were usually gained their wealth through agriculture and lived in areas where the Pope was more of a threat, whereas Guelphs tended to be merchants and lived in areas where the Emperor was more of a threat (Wikipedia 2).
The Pope and the Guelphs joined forces very early because of their common enemy in the Hohenstaufen (Dantemass 1).
It got to the point that if one city joined a party, its rival city would join the other party (Dantemass 1).
People were so loyal to their party that one could tell what party someone belonged to based on how they cut their fruit or on which side of the hat they wore their feathers (Wikipedia 5).
Guelph and Ghibellines
“The Guelph-Ghibelline conflict continued for another two centuries as it became a specifically Italian conflict between forces opposed to papacy and those supporting it” (Dantemass 1).
The fighting was a source of distress among all of the people of Italy.
The Guelph and Ghibelline conflict continued long after the Hohenstaufen dynasty lost its power, becoming a fight between families and cities. It was no longer a struggle between the papacy and the emperor (Wikipedia 2).
The Ghibellines were defeated in 1289 at Campaldino and Caprona, but came back by 1325. By this time, though, a lot of the higher powers were disgusted by this feud and in 1334 Pope Benedict XII threatened people still involved with either the Guelphs or Ghibellines with excommunication (Wikipedia 3).
3. Finally during the Italian Wars from 1494 to 1559, the Guelphs and Ghibellines became obsolete as the political landscape was upheaved, and Pope Paul V even wore the Ghibelline eagle as his coat of arms (Wikipedia 4).
4. On March 25 2015, hundreds of years later, the Guelph party became the Christian Order that was to serve the Catholic Church. In the Palagio di Parte Guelfa (Palace of the Guelph Party), the Mayor of Florence established a headquarters for the reconstituted Guelph party (Wikipedia 4).
“After the Guelphs finally defeated the Ghibellines in 1289 at Campaldino and Caprona, Guelphs began to fight among themselves. By 1300 the Florentine Guelphs had divided into the Black Guelphs and the White Guelphs” (Wikipedia 3).
The division started in Pistola. An uncle chastised a nephew for throwing a snowball. Striking back a few days later, the nephew hit the uncle. This should have ended there, but the uncle’s son caught the nephew (his cousin) and cut off his hands. He then proceeded to kill the nephew’s father. A feud developed on how the murder should be ruled, and so the Guelphs split into the Black party and the White party (Dantemass 2).
The Blacks essentially stayed true to the Pope, whereas the Whites grew to oppose him, especially Pope Boniface VII (Wikipedia 3).
The whites get their name from Bianca Cancellieri, and became the Bianchi. The Blacks just opposed the Whites, becoming the Neri (Dantemass 2).
4. After essentially a civil war, the Whites just joined the Ghibellines and the Guelph Ghibelline war resumed (Dantemass 2).