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Biology 20 - Macromolecules

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Morgan Laird

on 15 July 2014

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Transcript of Biology 20 - Macromolecules

All living things are made up of
non-living components
Vitamins and Minerals
Nucleic acids
energy nutrients
fast energy source
large component of
most diets
we cannot create these ourselves,
we rely on plants
combine carbon dioxide and water to create glucose
can come as single
units or in chains called
1:2:1 ratio
Glucose in human blood
fructose in fruit
deoxyribose in DNA
simple sugar because the contain one unit
Examples: Glucose, Fructose, Galactose
Page 243
involve the combination of
two monosaccharides
glucose + fructose
two glucose
glucose and galactose
chains of more than two monosaccharides
Starch, which is where plants store their energy (in the bonds)
Glycogen, where animals store their energy
Cellulose, which makes up
plant walls
digest this - it is bulk
(we refer back to this later)
two structural units
Fatty Acid
store energy
important component
of cell membrances
glycerol + three fatty acids
glycerol is always the same,
but the three fatty acids can
have different compositions
saturated: no double bonds, meaning max # H's
unsaturated: double bonds, leaving room for H's
liquid at room temperature
solid at room temperature
have the greatest
structural complexity and
functional diversity
hair and nails are the same
compound but each have their own
distinctive properties
sub units are called amino acids
20 different amino acids
we synthesis 11 ourselves, others
are essential amino acids we
consume in our diet
amino acids are connected
with peptide bonds
chains are called polypeptides
direct growth and
determine how
cells function
and characteristics
two types:
DNA contains genes
subunits called
nucleotides - 4 types
nucleotides contain
a 5 C sugar,
phosphate and base
not macromolecules, but essential to structure and function
involved in tissue development,
growth and resistance to disease
build bones and muscles
enable some reactions to occur
How do we digest the food
that we consume so that we can
benefit from all of the nutrients?!

Through the process of digestion
What is digestion?
the mechanical and chemical breaking down of food into smaller components, to a form that can be absorbed
The Mouth:
Digestion starts here
Teeth: Physical digestion of food.
This breaks down food into smaller
pieces, increasing surface area
Four components in the process of digestion
1. Ingestion - taking in nutrients
2. Digestion - breakdown of complex molecules into smaller compounds
3. Absorption - transport of digested nutrients to
the cells of the body

4. Egestion - removal of food waste from the body
Salivary glands
Contains amylase
enzymes which
break down starches
broken down food
particles in saliva
penetrate our taste
buds, allowing us to
food mass formed
in mouth called
bolus moves to the
back of the throat
and stretches the
walls of the
this causes rhythmic
contractions to force food down.
These are involuntary and are
called peristalsis
Initial protein digestion
and food storage
composed of three layers
of muscles that run in different
directions allowing for food to
be churned
sphincters act like drawstrings
on a bag. uppper stomach is the
lower esophageal sphincter
this sphinctor is the
pyloric sphincter
inner cells secrete
gastic juices to aid in
these contain HCl,
pepsinogen and mucus
HCl converts pepsinogen to
its active form, pepsin
Pepsin is the enzyme that begins protein digestion
mucus helps to protect the stomach from being digested
When food pushes on
the cells of stomach wall
gastrin is produced. Its
job is to signal the release
of HCl
Most digestion occurs
in the first part of
the small intestine
Digestion of all three
macromolecules is
completed here
Movement of food
occurs by peristalsis
Most absorption occurs here
produces bicarbonate
ions to protect the
small intestine
When acidic food from
the stomach enters the
small intestine, the enzyme
secretin is sent to the pancreas
to tell it to send bicarbonate ions
this changes the pH
from acidic to basic
which inactivates pepsin
(protecting the small
The following enzymes are made in the pancreas
and comes to the small intestines to help break
down the three macromolecules
Pancreatic Amylase
breaks down intermediate chains of carbs into disaccharides
breaks down disaccharides
into monosaccharides
breaks down
sent from pancreas. Once it reaches
the small intestine the enzyme
enterokinase converts inactive
trypsinogen into trypsin.
trypsin is the active
form that breaks
down proteins
the enzyme erepsin
completes protein
But, why is the pancreas NOT
damaged by the enzymes it secretes??
produces bile
contains bile salts
which aids in fat
when not needed
bile is stored in the
gall bladder
when there is fat in the small intestine
the hormone CCK travels through the
bloodstream to release bile salts
Liver detoxifies many
substances. Harmful
substances are made
soluble and eliminated
through urine
stores glycogen
All chemical
digestion is completed
by this point
Large Intestine
stores waste long enough to reabsorb water, vitamins and minerals
Cellulose is
indigestible but
plays an important
part in digestion.
It provides bulk which
pushes against
the walls of the
intestine. Receptors in
the walls send
information to the brain promoting a bowel movement
this ensures the removal
of potentially toxic wastes
from the body
Controlling the process of digestion
controlled by nervous and hormonal systems
Seeing, smelling or tasting food will produce gastric secretions even before there is any food in the stomach
Swallowing motions also stimulate production of gastric juices, regardless of whether food is actually swallowed
If a meal is fatty, the small intestine secretes enterogastrone, which slows down peristaltic movements, allowing for lipid digestion and absorption
Learning Goal: I will be able to describe the chemical nature of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins and their enzymes
Full transcript