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BURNS & FIRST AID TREATMENT
Transcript of BURNS & FIRST AID TREATMENT
Aurelia Palacios Minor Burns Minor burns consist of first and second degree burns that are limited to three inches in diameter. When you first realize you have a minor burn you should run the burned area under cool water for 15 minutes to reduce swelling. Then you should cover the burn with a sterile gauze bandage to keep air off the burn and to protect the blistered skin. To reduce pain you can take an over-the-counter pain reliever. These burns should usually heal with no further treatment. You should always watch for infection. Major Burns Burns & First Aid
Treatment First Degree Second Degree Third Degree Fourth Degree Fifth & Sixth Degree Types of Burns There are six general different types of burns. These are radiation burns, friction burns, heat burns, electrical burns, cold temperature burns and chemical burns. Chemical Electrical Heat Friction Radiation Major involve all layers of the skin and cause permanent tissue damage and sever scarring. Major burns need medical attention immediately. Checking for signs of circulation must happen frequently,if there are no signs of circulation begin CPR. Elevating the burned body parts above heart level will be effective and finally you should cover the area with a cool sterile bandage. Burns are susceptible to tetanus, so it is recommended to get a tetanus shot. Most often diagnosed during autopsy
Damage goes through all layers of skin, muscles and to the bone
Sometimes leaving bones charred
Very low victim survival rate
Amputation needed if victim does survive There are two main types of thermal burns. Scalding burns usually occur when hot drinks are spilled or when bathwater is too hot. This type tends to be superficial. Flame burns are often caused by inhalation or direct contact and tend to be deep. Scald burn Flame burn Radiation burns come in many varieties. Different types of radiation (alpha, beta, gamma) produce different degrees of burns and penetrate to different levels of the body. They can be caused by the sun, tanning booths, sunlamps, X-rays, or radiation therapy for cancer. Friction burns can be caused by contact with a variety of hard surfaces including pavement and carpet. They are usually combinations of abrasions and heat burns. Electrical burns are caused, obviously, by contact with an electric power source. They can also be caused by lightning. Most of the damage caused by electrical burns is internal Chemical burns can be caused by industrial or household cleaners or other chemicals.
Many people mainly women are the target of such chemical burns through the use of acid. When the first layer of skin is burned through and the second layer is also burned
Caused by flames, scald injuries, skin that briefly comes in contact with a hot object
Symptoms are blisters, deep redness, burn may appear wet and shiny, skin is painful to the touch, skin may be white or discolored, severe pain and swelling may appear
They usually heal in about 3 weeks with constant cleaning and protection
For self- treatment of burns you should take over the counter pain relievers (tylenol, motrin, ibuprofen etc), cool burn with cool water (never use ice cubes), and cover the burn with a sterile gauze pad or bandaid Affects deep beyond skin into muscle, ligaments, and bones
Skin will appear blackened or charred
Often times fatal
Cantractures are often an outcome of fourth degree burns These burns affect the outer layer of skin but do not cause long-term tissue damage but may consist of an increase or decrease of skin color
They are caused by mild sunburns and flash-burns (sudden and brief burst of heat to the skin)
Symptoms are redness, dry skin, peeling skin, and painful to touch skin
Pain usually last for 48 to 72 hours
They usually heal over time, but lotions, ointments, cold compresses, or aspirin is used to decrease the pain This Prezi contains many disturbing images of different types of burns. If you have a weak constitution we strongly recommend to either leave the room or prepare yourself for the graphic images. WARNING Treating minor burns takes a little caution Do not use ice to cool your skin. Ice can make a person's body too cold and can cause more damage.
Do not apply any ointments to the burn, as this can cause infection.
Do not break blisters because this also can make you vulnerable to infection. Cautions Treatment New Technology: The Skin-Cell Gun Essentially the skin-cell gun works like a spray-paint gun
The process functions by taking a biopsy of healthy skin cells and isolating them
A water-based solution of the healthy cells is sprayed on the burn and new skin grows Why It's Better Than A Skin Graft The process only takes an hour and a half from start to finish, in contrast to skin grafts that can take months.
The skin-cell gun only takes a few days to fully recover from treatment
It looks natural, and is virtually flawless. Skin grafts can look "patchy" and sometimes the skin color doesn't match. Caution While waiting for medical help you should never remove any of the victims burnt clothing but make sure you are away from smoldering material, heat and smoke. You should never soak large severe burns in cold water, this could cause hypothermia or deterioration of blood pressure. Examples of First Degree Burns Examples of Second Degree Burn Examples of Third Degree Burns Bibliography Credible Websites http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-burns/FA00022
http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-frostbite/FA00023 Mayo Clinic Staff. February 2, 2012. Burns: First Aid. Mayo Clinic. May 28, 2013, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-burns/FA00022.
Hessong, Athena. "How to Treat Friction Burn." EHow. Demand Media, 23 Oct. 2009. Web. 31 May 2013. http://www.ehow.com/how_5566181_treat-friction-burn.html
Teeghman, David. February 17, 2011. Spray-On Skin Cells For Burn Victims. Discovery. May 29, 2013, from http://news.discovery.com/tech/spray-on-skin-cells-for-burn-victims.htm. Peer Reviewed Journals First Aid for Heat Burns To prevent further burning, you should smother any flames by using a blanket or water.
If clothing is on fire DO NOT run, you should STOP, DROP and ROLL to smother the flames
For a scalding burn, run cool tap water over the burn for 10 to 20 minutes (never use ice)
If burns are minor, wrap them in a clean bandage & take over the counter pain medication
For major burns that require immediate medical attention, wrap in clean moist bandages or sheet. Keep the body warm to prevent victim from going into shock. Dial 911 immediately First Aid for Electrical Burns Electrical burns can be deceiving to the eye since there may be no external signs of damage
But they may cause serious, even life threatening damage internally
Carefully disconnect victim from the current of electricity, and move them away
Cover body to prevent shock
Dial 911 for medical help First Aid for Chemical Burns Immediately flush burned area with clean, cool water for at least 15 minutes
Remove any clothing or jewelry contaminated with chemicals
Take over the counter pain medication
If pain persists or burn is deeper than first layer, get medical help Cold
Temperature First Aid for Cold Temperature Burns Examples of Fourth Degree Burns Example of 5th & 6th Degree Burn First Aid for Friction Burns First Aid for Radiation Burns Otherwise known as frostbite is when skin comes in contact with extreme cold such as snow, dry ice, liquid nitrogen, or liquid helium. Protect your skin from further exposure. If you're outside, warm frostbitten hands by tucking them into your armpits. Protect your face, nose or ears by covering the area with dry, gloved hands. Don't rub the affected area and never rub snow on frostbitten skin.
Get out of the cold. Once you're indoors, remove wet clothes.
Gradually warm frostbitten areas. Put frostbitten hands or feet in warm water — 104 to 107.6 F. Wrap or cover other areas in a warm blanket. Don't use direct heat, such as a stove, heat lamp, fireplace or heating pad, because these can cause burns before you feel them on your numb skin.
Don't walk on frostbitten feet or toes if possible. This further damages the tissue.
If there's any chance the affected areas will freeze again, don't thaw them. If they're already thawed, wrap them up so that they don't become frozen again.
Get emergency medical help. Place the burned area under cold, running water for 10 to 15 minutes until the pain lessens. This both eases the pain slightly and washes out foreign material.
Pat the burn dry with a soft towel, taking care to avoid getting fibers into the friction-burned area.
Apply a drop of anti-inflammatory first aid cream to the site only if pain remains.
Cover the wound with the gauze bandage, securing it with medical tape.
Keep the friction burn covered until the skin completely heals. Take pain medication and use burn ointments
For first degree radiation burns, use ibuprofen and an over the counter antibiotic or burn ointment.
Second degree radiation burns require continual everyday treatment with cool wet cloths and prescribed ointments.
Third degree burns require immediate medical care.
Use Topicure. Topicure is a patented radiation burn treatment and is listed on the National Drug Code Directory (NDC). Topicure is a cream that simultaneously reduces pain and heals wounds associated with various types of radiation burns. Leonard, Vaughnlea. "How to Treat Radiation Burns." EHow. Demand Media, 05 Aug. 2008. Web. 31 May 2013. http://www.ehow.com/how_4472114_treat-radiation-burns.html Bayat, Mohammad, et al. "Low-level laser therapy with pulsed infrared laser accelerates third-degree burn healing process in rats." Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 26.4 (2009): 543+. Nursing and Allied Health Collection. Web. 30 May 2013.
Bayat, Mohammad, et al. "Effects of low-level laser therapy on mast cell number and degranulation in third-degree burns of rats." Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 45.6 (2008): 931+. Nursing and Allied Health Collection. Web. 30 May 2013.
Beer, Kenneth, and Jill Waibel. "Ablative fractional laser resurfacing for the treatment of a third-degree burn." Journal of Drugs in Dermatology 8.3 (2009): 294+. Nursing and Allied Health Collection. Web. 30 May 2013. Hirshfled, John W. "The Treatment of Thermal Burns." The American Journal of Nursing 46.3 (1946): 158-62. Print. The treatment of third-degree burns may require the process of skin grafting or the use of synthetic skin. Severe burns covering large parts of the body may need more intensive treatments such as intravenous (IV) antibiotics to prevent infection or IV fluids to replace fluids lost when skin was burned. Treatment Third-degree burn. Burns that reach into the fat layer beneath the dermis are called third-degree burns. The skin may appear stiff, waxy white, leathery or tan. Third-degree burns can destroy nerves, causing numbness.
The most serious burns involve all layers of the skin and cause permanent tissue damage. Fat, muscle and even bone may be affected. Areas may be charred black or appear dry and white. Difficulty inhaling and exhaling, carbon monoxide poisoning, or other toxic effects may occur if smoke inhalation accompanies the burn. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) Studies using rats shows that low-level laser in rats significantly increased wound-closure rate compared with control burns. Ablative Fractional Laser Resurfacing