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Stress in complex words

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Kamil Kaźmierski

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of Stress in complex words

Stress in complex words
Affix words
Compounds
Prefixes
Suffixes
Suffixes affecting stress placement
stress-neutral:
suffixes NOT affecting stress placement
stress-bearing = stress-acquiring:
suffixes attracting primary stress to themselves
stress-shifting = stress dragging:
suffixes shifting the primary stress of the stem onto the last syllable of the stem
Suffixes
sometimes
influencing stress placement
-ive:
stress-shifting
:
'
execute ~ ex
'
ecutive;
'
indicate ~ in
'
dicative
but:
stress-neutral
:
'
innovate ~
'
innovative;
'
operate ~
'
operative

-
ous
:
stress-shifting:
'moment ~ mo'mentous,

but:

stress-neutral:
'murder ~ 'murderous

-
ary
, -
ory
:
stress-shifting
: 'complement ~ ˌcomple'mentary,
but:
stress-neutral:
'fragment ~ 'fragmentary, 'comment ~ 'commentary
complex = consisting of more than one grammatical unit (morpheme)
care
vs.
careless
vs.
carelessness

board
vs.
blackboard

quick+ly
suffix
ir+regular
stem (root)
prefix
-no interesting generalizations
-usually do not influence stress placement:
ˈnecessary ~unˈnecessary
,
po
ˈ
lite ~ ˌimpoˈlite
,
but:
ˈcircle

semiˌcircle
-ese:
Jaˈpan
~
Japaˈnese
-ee: '
refuge
~ ˌ
refuˈgee
-eer: ˈmountain ~ ˌmountainˈeer
-ette: ˈ
kitchen
~ ˌ
kitcheˈnette
-esque: ˈ
picture
~ ˌ
picturˈesque

NOTE: Polysyllabic stems have a secondary stress.

-eous:
adˈvantage
~ ˌ
advanˈtageous
-ion: ˈ
perfect
~
perˈfection
-ial: ˈ
proverb
~
proˈverbial

-ic: ˈ
period
~ ˌ
periˈodic
(exc.: ˈ
Arab ~ ˈArabic
)
-ify: ˈ
person
~
perˈsonify
-ity: ˈ
tranquil
~
tranˈquility
-ual: ˈcontext ~ conˈtextual
-ean: ˈ
Aristotle ~ ˌAristoˈtelean
Derivational
-able: ˈ
comfortable
-age: ˈ
anchorage
-al:
reˈfusal
-en: ˈ
widen
-ful: ˈ
wonderful
-
hood:
ˈnationhood
-
ism:
ˈalcoholism
-ize:
ˈspecialize
-like: ˈ
birdlike
-less: ˈ
powerless
-ly: ˈ
hurriedly
Words composed of two (or more) words that can exist independently as English words (i.e. free morphemes). The meaning of the compound is often more than the sum of its parts.
something + noun
-->
first
word stressed:
[noun + noun]
'armchair
'sunflower

'fruit-cake/'fruitcake,
'gear-change
'desk lamp
'battery charger

(note the inconsistency in English spelling of compounds, where German spells all compounds as single words, e.g.
Gehstock
,
Arbeitsunfähigkeitsbescheinigung
)
Other parts of speech:

ADJ + Ved
bad-'tempered
heavy-'handed
Number + STH
three-'wheeler
second-'class
adverbs
head-'first
down'stream
adverb + verb
down'grade
up'date
Sources:

Roach, Peter. 1991.
English phonetics and phonology. A practical course
. (2nd edition.) Cambridge University Press.
Chapter 11.

Yavaş, Mehmet. 2011.
Applied English phonology
. (2nd edition). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Chapter 7.

Further reading:

Sobkowiak, Włodzimierz. 2004. English phonetics for Poles. (3rd edition.) Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie.
Chapter 9 (English Word-Stress).
Inflectional
-ed:
ˈlimited
-es:
ˈoranges
-es:
ˈmanages
-er: ˈ
prettier
-est: ˈ
prettiest
-ing
: ˈinteresting
-ment: ˈ
punishment
-ness: ˈ
yellowness
-wise: ˈ
otherwise
'White House
[adj + noun]
'stop watch
[verb + noun]
ˈwalking stick
[verb-ing + noun]
'underwear
[adverb + noun]
Levels of stress

primary:
ˈmountain |
O • |
secondary:
ˌmountainˈeer
| o • O |

In English, secondary stress might fall on the
first
(
ˌmountainˈeer
) or
second
syllable of a word, cf.

coˌmmuniˈcation
| • o • O • |

! Note: It's different in Polish, where secondary stress, when present, always falls on the
first
syllable of a word.

ˌkomuniˈkacja
| o • • O • |
ˌkomuniˈkować
| o • • O • |
Compounds vs. phrases
Compounds are stressed differently than phrases, and they have different meanings:
'white board
(compound) | O o | – a classroom appliance that you write on with a marker
vs.
white 'board
(phrase) | o O | – a long piece of wood which is white

'stand-up
(compound) | O o | – a comic style in which a comedian performs in front of a live audience
vs.
stand
'
up (phrase) | o O | – to get up onto your feet from another position

ˌmetal ˈfan
(phrase)
ˈmetal ˌfan
(compound)
How do you make a ˌdog ˈdrink?
(not a compound)
How do you make a ˈdog ˌdrink?
(compound)
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