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Matter and Change Vocabulary

Honors Chemistry

Jasmine Berry

on 14 December 2012

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Transcript of Matter and Change Vocabulary

Matter Matter's Properties Mass, Volume, Internal Energy, Weight, Length, Height and Width Branches of Chemistry Intensive Chemical Work can be.. Applied Develop new products or improve old ones Answering a specific question Properties Independent of the amount of matter in an object. Technological Fundamental Cuidado! It usually falls under intensive, but things like concentration, and thickness can affect the color. You can see through glass and it appears colorless, but wait.... it's actually green!!! You're probably thinking, "What?! You don't know what your talking about. Since when is clear, see through glass green?" If you happen to stumble upon a block of glass you will notice it actually has a green tint to it, and if you were to carefully take out the glass in a picture frame and look at the edges, you would see they have a green tint to them as well. Wooh! Wait, what about color?! Inorganic Organic But wait! Though all these branches of chemistry exist, they can overlap. Physical Carbon- based chemistry (e.g. pesticides) Non-carbon based chemistry (often metallic) The composition of materials Analytical Theoretical Biochemistry Chemicals processes in living organisms Computational and predictive chemistry Applying physics to studying chemical systems Element Diatomic Elements Atom The smallest unit of an element that cannot be broken down.

It is the fundamental building block of matter. Pure substances that cannot be broken down
Contain only one type of atom Elements that never exist alone
Composed of two atoms that usually contain the same element

They include: bromine, iodine, nitrogen, chlorine, hydrogen, oxygen, and fluorine Did you know? The diatomic elements form the number "7" on the periodic table, which makes them easy to spot. Polyatomic Elements An element that needs two or more of the same atoms to exist.
One example of this is a diatomic element.

Other examples include: phosphorus (P4) and sulfur (S8). Extensive Properties dependent on the amount of matter present in an object. Color, Odor, Luster (Shininess), Malleability, Ductility, Conductivity, Hardness, Density, BP, MP, etc. Mixtures Group of 2+ different chemicals stirred, but not chemically bonded together. Mixtures occur in different ratios, because they are not of fixed ratios like pure substances. For Example, seawater does not have a definite salt/ mineral to water ratio. Mixtures can be physically separated through methods like filtration, using a centrifuge, chromatography, settling, freezing, evaporation, etc. Can be either OR Heterogeneous - which has noticeably different composition or consistency in areas of the mixture. Ex. Cookie Dough Ice Cream Homogenous - has uniform composition through out mixture. A.k.a. solution. Ex. Non-saturated saltwater. Or a mixture is a colloid - the in-between area of hetero and homogeneous mixtures Physical Properties Color Density Melting Point Melting Boiling Cutting Change Means that nothing is changed at the atomic level. VS Chemical Sensitivity Flammability Rusting Burning Properties Change Means that the substance is changed at the atomic level. Honors Chemistry is Fun!!! Compounds... ... can be chemically broken down ...have a definite ratio of elements arranged in a specific order Any substance that has definite composition and structure. WARNING: A MIXTURE IS NOT CHEMICAL BECAUSE THE COMPOSITION CAN BE CHANGED! It actually does matter... Has two important properties: Mass and Volume States Of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Increase in Energy Fast moving particles, far apart and even have lost electrons Particles are moving fast and are far apart Particles are moving but close to each other. Particles are vibrating in fixed positions and are close to each other. Energy is always involved in changes. Endothermic Exothermic Energy is taken in Energy is released out Energy is never created or destroyed. Doing experiments for the sake of curiosity Chemical Reactions Reactants Products Starting chemicals Final Chemicals Hydrogen + Oxygen ---> Water Reactants Reactants Products ...are made of two or more elements that are chemically bonded Chemical
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