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Matter and Change Vocabulary
Transcript of Matter and Change Vocabulary
It is the fundamental building block of matter. Pure substances that cannot be broken down
Contain only one type of atom Elements that never exist alone
Composed of two atoms that usually contain the same element
They include: bromine, iodine, nitrogen, chlorine, hydrogen, oxygen, and fluorine Did you know? The diatomic elements form the number "7" on the periodic table, which makes them easy to spot. Polyatomic Elements An element that needs two or more of the same atoms to exist.
One example of this is a diatomic element.
Other examples include: phosphorus (P4) and sulfur (S8). Extensive Properties dependent on the amount of matter present in an object. Color, Odor, Luster (Shininess), Malleability, Ductility, Conductivity, Hardness, Density, BP, MP, etc. Mixtures Group of 2+ different chemicals stirred, but not chemically bonded together. Mixtures occur in different ratios, because they are not of fixed ratios like pure substances. For Example, seawater does not have a definite salt/ mineral to water ratio. Mixtures can be physically separated through methods like filtration, using a centrifuge, chromatography, settling, freezing, evaporation, etc. Can be either OR Heterogeneous - which has noticeably different composition or consistency in areas of the mixture. Ex. Cookie Dough Ice Cream Homogenous - has uniform composition through out mixture. A.k.a. solution. Ex. Non-saturated saltwater. Or a mixture is a colloid - the in-between area of hetero and homogeneous mixtures Physical Properties Color Density Melting Point Melting Boiling Cutting Change Means that nothing is changed at the atomic level. VS Chemical Sensitivity Flammability Rusting Burning Properties Change Means that the substance is changed at the atomic level. Honors Chemistry is Fun!!! Compounds... ... can be chemically broken down ...have a definite ratio of elements arranged in a specific order Any substance that has definite composition and structure. WARNING: A MIXTURE IS NOT CHEMICAL BECAUSE THE COMPOSITION CAN BE CHANGED! It actually does matter... Has two important properties: Mass and Volume States Of Matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Increase in Energy Fast moving particles, far apart and even have lost electrons Particles are moving fast and are far apart Particles are moving but close to each other. Particles are vibrating in fixed positions and are close to each other. Energy is always involved in changes. Endothermic Exothermic Energy is taken in Energy is released out Energy is never created or destroyed. Doing experiments for the sake of curiosity Chemical Reactions Reactants Products Starting chemicals Final Chemicals Hydrogen + Oxygen ---> Water Reactants Reactants Products ...are made of two or more elements that are chemically bonded Chemical