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A New World - 5th Grade Social Studies
Transcript of A New World - 5th Grade Social Studies
Age of Exploration
Puritan New England
Colonial Life in America
Seven Years War
The Roots of Revolution
Fighting for Independence
A NEW WORLD
After receiving significant funding from the Spanish monarchs, Columbus set sail on August 3, 1492 with three ships (the
, and the
, and 104 men.
After a short stop in the Canary Islands to resupply and make minor repairs, the ships set out across the Atlantic. The voyage took approximately five weeks - much longer than Columbus expected since he thought the world was much smaller than it is. During the journey, many of the crew members contracted diseases and died, or died from hunger and thirst.
Finally, at 2 a.m. on October 12, 1492, Rodrigo de Triana, sighted land in the area of present-day Bahamas. When Columbus reached the land, he believed it was an Asian island and named it San Salvador. Because he did not find riches, Columbus decided to continue sailing in search of China. Instead, he ended up visiting Cuba and Hispaniola.
On November 21, 1492, the
and its crew left to explore on its own. On Christmas Day, Columbus'
wrecked off the coast of Hispaniola. There was limited space on the lone
, so Columbus had to leave about 40 men behind at a fort they named
. Columbus soon returned to Spain, arriving on March 15, 1493, thus completing his first voyage west.
But, did Columbus really discover America?
There have been many legends, some more
probable than others. Each with its own
supporters. What do you think?
Were the Mayans, Aztecs, & Inca here first?
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
Juan Ponce de León
By 1600, North America was still largely unexplored
In 1607, 13 years before the Pilgrims landed in Massachusetts, a group of 104 English men and boys began a settlement on the banks of Virginia's James River. They were sponsored by the Virginia Company of London, whose stockholders hoped to make a profit from the resources of the New World. The community suffered terrible hardships in its early years, but managed to endure, earning the distinction of being America's first permanent English colony.
James Rolfe was responsible for planting the first tobacco in the new world.
The first legislature anywhere in the English colonies in America was in Virginia. This was the House of Burgesses. It first met on July 30, 1619, at a church in Jamestown. Its first order of business was to set a minimum price for the sale of tobacco.
In 1619, a Dutch ship tied up at the colony of Jamestown in Virginia. The captain paid for some tobacco it took aboard with about 20 black African captives. The “slaves” were probably seized as a prize from a slave trader bound for the Spanish West Indies. The popular theory has been that the blacks became “indentured servants,” like white settlers who could not afford passage to the colonies. There is no record of this in the papers dealing with Virginia or Jamestown. The word “slave” did not appear in records of Virginia until 1656 and laws dealing with “slaves” did not appear until the 1660s. With the success of tobacco planting, African Slavery was legalized in Virginia and Maryland, becoming the foundation of the Southern agrarian economy.
Church of England
After the Mayflower was safely anchored, 41 Pilgrim men signed an agreement which established a system by which they wished to govern themselves. This document has come to be known as
The Mayflower Compact
. The Compact was signed in the cabin of the
on 11th November, 1620 [old style calendar] or 21st November, 1620 [new style calendar].
*Spelling is as it appears on the original document.
"In ye name of God, Amen. We whose names are underwritten, the loyall subjects of our dread soveraigne Lord, King James, by the grace of God, of Great Britaine, France, & Ireland king, Defender of the Faith, etc.
Haveing under-taken, for ye glorie of God, and advancements of ye Christian faith, and honour of our King & Countrie, a voyage to plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly & mutually in ye presence of God, and one of another, covenant & combine our selves together into a Civill body politick, for our better ordering & preservation & furtherance of ye ends aforesaid; and by vertue hearof to enacte lawes, ordinances, acts constitutions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet & convenient for ye generall good of ye Colonie, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness wherof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape Codd ye 11th. of November, in ye year of ye raigne of our soveraigne lord, King James, of England, France, & Ireland ye eighteenth, and of Scotland, ye fiftie-fourth. Ano: Dom. 1620."
Colonial Life in America
The very first colony was Virginia (originally Jamestown), which was founded in 1607.
America: The Story of Us
Massachusetts was founded in 1630. Settlers from Shawmuth and Trimoutaine changed its name to Boston, which is still named after a city in England. In 1635, the first public school in America was founded and named
Boston Latin School
. It is still standing, and is the oldest school in America. The first public park was built in Boston as well. While the first American newspaper was created here. Massachusetts is steeped in American history.
Seven Years War / French and Indian War
War was waging on in Europe, and Asia. Soon it would hit the shores of North
Bone of Contention = Territory in the New World
Seven Years War / The French and Indian War
The Roots of Revolution
The Treaty of Paris
The 1763 Treaty of Paris brought about the end of the French and Indian War and the Seven Years’ War, resulting in peace between Great Britain, Spain, and France. The treaty settled several questions regarding territories and colonies in the Americas.
The act required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp. These printed materials were legal documents, magazines, newspapers and many other types of paper used throughout the colonies ...
"NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!"
In May 1773, the English parliament imposed the Tea Act: it's a tax on tea. For the settlers, it was a provocation.
The 16 December 1773, 3 boats called The Darthmouth, The Eleanor and The Pivert arrived in America with a lot of tea, while there wasn't any place to put them.
The settlers, very angry, disguised as Mohawk Indians and threw 342 boxes of tea in the sea. This became known as the Boston Tea Party.
Congress, CONTINENTAL. The first Continental Congress assembled in Carpenters' Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., on Sept. 5, 1774, when eleven of the English-American colonies were represented by forty-four delegates—namely, two from New Hampshire, four from Massachusetts, two from Rhode Island, three from Connecticut, five from New York, five from New Jersey, six from Pennsylvania, three from Delaware, three from Maryland, six from Virginia, and five from South Carolina. Three deputies from North Carolina appeared on the 14th. Peyton Randolph, of Virginia, was chosen president of the Congress, and Charles Thomson, of Pennsylvania, was appointed secretary. Other delegates appeared afterwards, making the whole number fifty - four. Each colony
Battle of Lexington
Declaration of Independence
2nd Continental Congress
JULY 4. 1776
Declaration of Independence
In 1776, soon after the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, the leaders of the war got together to write a letter to the King of England. They wanted to explain why they were fighting to be their own country, independent of England. This is what they had to say (but in easier words):
Sometimes one group of people decide to split off from another group, and to become an independent country, as the laws of Nature and of God say that they can. But when this happens, if they want other people to respect them, they should explain why they are splitting off.
We think these things are obviously true:
That all men are created equal
That all men have some rights given to them by God
That among these rights are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
So whenever any government is getting in the way of these rights, people have the right to change it or get rid of it, and to make a new government, in whatever way seems most likely to make them safe and happy.
People should not change their government without a good reason, so people usually suffer as long as they can under the government they have, rather than change it. But when there have been a lot of problems for a long time, it is their right and their duty to throw off that government, and to set up a better government. We here in America have suffered for a very long time, and now we should change our government. The king of England has done many bad things to us - here is a list:
He won't let us pass laws we need for everybody's good.
Even when we do pass laws, he won't sign them so they can go into effect.
He tried to force men to give up their right to make laws.
He calls men together to make laws in the most inconvenient times and places, so that they
won't be able to go discuss the new laws.
He won't let new settlers come to America, and he won't let the settlers take over new land
from the Native Americans.
He won't let us choose our own judges, and instead he chooses them all himself, so they're all
on his side.
He sends lots of new government officials that we don't want, and he makes us pay for them.
He sends lots of English soldiers here when there isn't even a war, and makes us let them
live in our own houses.
He tells us these soldiers can do whatever they want and don't have to obey the law.
He won't let us buy and sell things from wherever we want. We can only buy things from
He makes us pay all kinds of taxes without asking us about it.
He won't let us have a jury for our trials, only a judge.
He sends people accused of crimes far away to England for their trials.
He tries to get people to revolt and tries to get the "Indian Savages" to attack us.
When we ask him to stop, he just keeps on doing more bad things. We have tried to ...
Asian Trade Routes in the 1400s
Traders: people who gain wealth by buying items at a low price and selling them to others at higher prices
European countries (England, Spain, France & Portugal) use trade to gain wealth
Goal of Kings & Queens = build large armies with wealth
Bought silks, spices, jewels & other luxury items
Problems Facing Traders
Muslims controlled land routes between Europe & Asia
European Traders decided to find a sea route around Muslim-controlled lands
Problems facing sailors were -
Did not have good ways of knowing where they were if they lost sight of land
Maps were poor
Ships were too slow to make long voyages
New inventions were about to change this
astrolabe & caravel
Columbus didn't give up looking
for a new trade route to Asia.
8th - 11th Centuries
The First Americans
Were the Vikings here first?
*Refer to French and Spanish Colonization of North America Powerpoint at this point.
Replicas of the ships that
landed in Jamestown
King James I was not only the king of England, he was also the head of the Church of England.
The Thirteen Original Colonies
Although struggles for supremacy had been going on for many decades between France and England in the New World, hostilities intensified in the early 1750s as both English and French settlers had attempted to colonize land in the Ohio River Valley, near present day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The English settlers, who had moved northwest from Virginia, and French settlers, who had moved east from the Great Lakes, or south from Canada, each thought they owned the rights to the land.
In 1754, English forces under George Washington had begun their march to Fort Duquesne for the purposes of ousting the French from the region by force. On the way, they encountered a French scouting party near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Washington’s men massacred the party in what came to be known as
The Battle of Jumonville
. Gen. Washington soon took camp at Great Meadows, a large natural clearing, and ordered the construction of
in anticipation of a French response.
The French did respond! A group of 600 soldiers forced Washington to surrender the fort. The French and Indian War had begun.
As a result of the British victory in the French and Indian War, France
was effectively expelled from the New World. They relinquished virtually all of their New World possessions, including parts of Canada. They managed to retain a few small islands off the coast of Canada and in the Caribbean. They also agreed to stay out of India (remember the trade routes?), which made Great Britain the supreme military power in that part of Asia.
In addition, as compensation for Spain’s loss of Florida to England, Spain was awarded the Louisiana territory. The entire face of North America had been dramatically changed.
Following the war, England issued the Proclamation of 1763, which restricted settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains in an attempt to appease Indians who had developed positive relations with France. Westward-bound settlers, however, ignored the proclamation and moved into Indian lands. Because the English had incurred significant debt while fighting the war in and for the colonies, Parliament attempted to recoup the financial loss by issuing the 1765 Stamp Act on the colonists. The Stamp Act was a tax on virtually all printed documents. The tax was ill-received by the colonists. These tax issues would become the cause of an even greater conflict 10 years later – The American Revolution.
Taxes were put on everyday items that colonists depended on.
The Stamp Act
Listen my children and you shall hear
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere,
On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five;
Hardly a man is now alive
Who remembers that famous day and year.
He said to his friend, "If the British march
By land or sea from the town to-night,
Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch
Of the North Church tower as a signal light,--
One if by land, and two if by sea;
And I on the opposite shore will be,
Ready to ride and spread the alarm
Through every Middlesex village and farm,
For the country folk to be up and to arm."
Then he said "Good-night!" and with muffled oar
Silently rowed to the Charlestown shore,
Just as the moon rose over the bay,
Where swinging wide at her moorings lay
The Somerset, British man-of-war;
A phantom ship, with each mast and spar
Across the moon like a prison bar,
And a huge black hulk, that was magnified
By its own reflection in the tide.
Meanwhile, his friend through alley and street
Wanders and watches, with eager ears,
Till in the silence around him he hears
The muster of men at the barrack door,
The sound of arms, and the tramp of feet,
And the measured tread of the grenadiers,
Marching down to their boats on the shore.
Then he climbed the tower of the Old North Church,
By the wooden stairs, with stealthy tread,
To the belfry chamber overhead.
And startled the pigeons from their perch
On the sombre rafters, that round him made
Masses and moving shapes of shade, ---
Tobacco became a "cash crop."
As a result, more settlers were
needed to continue to reap the
financial benefits of this crop.
Religion played a major role in early settlements.
Replica of the Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor
Artist's Rendering of the Pilgrims' Treacherous Journey
Mayflower Compact circa 1620
Diagram of a Typical Fort
Leaders During the French & Indian War
King George III
General George Washington
Maj. General Edward Braddock
Tanaghrisson (Iroquois Chief)
King Louis XV
Governor Gen. of New France - Marquis Duquesne
Maj. General Marquis de Montcalm
Even though they fought on the same side, the French and Indian War did not bring the British and Americans closer together.
British troops remained in the colonies, which the colonists resented. British troops looked down their noses at the colonials. They regarded them as crude and lacking culture. The pious New Englanders found the British redcoats to be profane and the presence and attitude of the aristocratic British officers disturbed the colonists. The colonists also saw their presence as a threat to the liberties they had enjoyed since their first settlements. Americans blamed Britain for many of their problems and felt their own governments were better suited to both govern and defend the colonies.
With the War behind it, Parliament intended to show colonists that they ruled the colonies. In 1765, the colonists still considered themselves as loyal subjects of Britain, with the same historic rights and obligations as Englishmen. But 160 years after the founding of Jamestown and a practice of “salutary neglect”, tension between the colonies and Britain was going to rapidly increase. (www.ushistory.org)
By the trembling ladder, steep and tall,
To the highest window in the wall,
Where he paused to listen and look down
A moment on the roofs of the town
And the moonlight flowing over all.
Beneath, in the churchyard, lay the dead,
In their night encampment on the hill,
Wrapped in silence so deep and still
That he could hear, like a sentinel's tread,
The watchful night-wind, as it went
Creeping along from tent to tent,
And seeming to whisper, "All is well!"
A moment only he feels the spell
Of the place and the hour, and the secret dread
Of the lonely belfry and the dead;
For suddenly all his thoughts are bent
On a shadowy something far away,
Where the river widens to meet the bay,--
A line of black that bends and floats
On the rising tide like a bridge of boats.
Meanwhile, impatient to mount and ride,
Booted and spurred, with a heavy stride
On the opposite shore walked Paul Revere.
Now he patted his horse's side,
Now he gazed at the landscape far and near,
Then, impetuous, stamped the earth,
And turned and tightened his saddle girth;
But mostly he watched with eager search
The belfry tower of the Old North Church,
As it rose above the graves on the hill,
Lonely and spectral and sombre and still.
And lo! as he looks, on the belfry's height
A glimmer, and then a gleam of light!
He springs to the saddle, the bridle he turns,
But lingers and gazes, till full on his sight
A second lamp in the belfry burns.
A hurry of hoofs in a village street,
A shape in the moonlight, a bulk in the dark,
And beneath, from the pebbles, in passing, a spark
Struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet;
That was all! And yet, through the gloom and the light,
The fate of a nation was riding that night;
And the spark struck out by that steed, in his flight,
Kindled the land into flame with its heat.
He has left the village and mounted the steep,
And beneath him, tranquil and broad and deep,
Is the Mystic, meeting the ocean tides;
And under the alders that skirt its edge,
Now soft on the sand, now loud on the ledge,
Is heard the tramp of his steed as he rides.
It was twelve by the village clock
When he crossed the bridge into Medford town.
He heard the crowing of the cock,
And the barking of the farmer's dog,
And felt the damp of the river fog,
That rises after the sun goes down.
It was one by the village clock,
When he galloped into Lexington.
He saw the gilded weathercock
Swim in the moonlight as he passed,
And the meeting-house windows, black and bare,
Gaze at him with a spectral glare,
As if they already stood aghast
At the bloody work they would look upon.
It was two by the village clock,
When he came to the bridge in Concord town.
He heard the bleating of the flock,
And the twitter of birds among the trees,
And felt the breath of the morning breeze
Blowing over the meadow brown.
And one was safe and asleep in his bed
Paul Revere's Ride
by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Who at the bridge would be first to fall,
Who that day would be lying dead,
Pierced by a British musket ball.
You know the rest. In the books you have read
How the British Regulars fired and fled,---
How the farmers gave them ball for ball,
>From behind each fence and farmyard wall,
Chasing the redcoats down the lane,
Then crossing the fields to emerge again
Under the trees at the turn of the road,
And only pausing to fire and load.
So through the night rode Paul Revere;
And so through the night went his cry of alarm
To every Middlesex village and farm,---
A cry of defiance, and not of fear,
A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door,
And a word that shall echo for evermore!
For, borne on the night-wind of the Past,
Through all our history, to the last,
In the hour of darkness and peril and need,
The people will waken and listen to hear
The hurrying hoof-beats of that steed,
And the midnight message of Paul Revere.