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Open Educational Resources

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Naomi Gadbois

on 2 March 2014

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Transcript of Open Educational Resources

Open Educational Resources
Technology that Supports OERs
by: Naomi Gadbois, Mary Kostelnik, Jennifer Newton & Vito Santo Borracci
Pedagogy / Andragogy
D'Antoni, S. (2009). Open educational resources: Reviewing initiatives and issues. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 24(1), 3-10.
Hylén, J. (2006). Open educational resources: Opportunities and Challenges. http://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/37351085.pdf
Lane, A. (2012). Widening participation in higher education through open educational resources. In A. Okada, T. Connolly, & P. Scott (Eds.) Collaborative Learning 2.0: Open Educational Resources (pp. 1-15). Hershey, PA.
Societal Impact
Practical Implications
Summary & Critique of Articles
Open educational resources: Reviewing initiatives and issues.
Widening participation in higher education through open educational resources.
Defining OERs
Discussion Questions
"The open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for noncommercial purposes."
"Teaching, learning and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials or techniques used to support access to knowledge."
Intro to OERs
Start by creating a Pinterest account here: https://www.pinterest.com
Once you have a profile set up:
Find and "follow" one of our EDU 5287 classmates
Create a board and pin at least 5 items that are of interest to you; your "pins" can be about teaching, hobbies or anything else!
Here are 2 examples of boards to give you an idea:

Cost effective – replace traditional textbooks
Accessibility – Students all over the world can access the same information as long as they have internet access
Stay connected and share – allow connection with students, teachers and friends
Speed – information is transmitted instantaneously

Lack of face to face communication – some people find it difficult to communicate online
Language and cultural barriers – many OERs are only available in English
Technology issues – some people may have a hard time navigating OERs
Quality issues – most OERs allow anyone to make an account, and therefore the credibility of the information is at risk (ie Wikipedia)
Please post a reflection about our topic to the discussion board on Blackboard Learn; here are some discussion questions to help you:

1. What are some of your thoughts about the OER article(s)? What ideas resonated with you?
2. What is one main idea that you can take away from our Prezi presentation on Open Educational Resources?

Pinterest Activity
1. Was this your first experience with Pinterest? If yes, can you see this as a useful tool? If not, what types of resources have you used Pinterest for?
2. Describe your experience in the activity: pinning five items to your board.
Desktop Computers/Laptops (Mac and PC)
Apple Products (iPhones, iPads, iPods)

Open Educational Resources can be accessed using a range of technological devices, as listed above. These devices aid in helping teachers, students and school personnel, etc. in getting the most out of OERs. These mobile devices, with the exception of desktops, make sharing and connecting easier and faster.
Positive Impacts
Free sharing leads to broader circulation which involves more people in problem-solving
Reaching more people helps to improve quality and render faster technical/scientific development
Broader development increases quality, stability and security
Societal development and lower social inequality in reinforced as a result from free sharing of software, scientific results, and educational resources
Increases publicity, reputation and peer participation
Negative Impacts
Lack of broadband access
Economic issues resulting in inadequate resources for necessary software and hardware
Lack of skills needed to use technology
Lack of recognition of OER development by teaching staff
Legality issues associated with time and expenses for permission to use third part owned copyrighted material

This article introduces the reader to the idea of participation within OERs by stating both its benefits and barriers. The reader receives a general overview of participation within OERs and can individually compare OERs to the more traditional “closed” University methods.

Widening Participation: New term that describes increasing participation in higher education
Life long learning can occur through OERs
Not solely relying on what was learned in Undergraduate classes, but using OERs to learn as an adult
Trends for higher education over past 100 years: increase in
Higher education missions and modes of teaching
The amount and variety of topics taught
The use of technology within classrooms
Online resources available (textbooks, articles etc)
These new trends allow for a increase in participation and a change in the demographic of higher education
“Widening participation is also about who is participating and not just how many are participating” (p.4)
Barriers include:
Geographical remoteness
Cultural norms
Socioeconomic status
Learning styles
1990s - Distance education programs and online learning emerged
1999 - MIT developed MIT OpenCourseWare, a web-based publishing venture (became the model for open sharing of educational content which lead to OERs)
2002 - Term Open Educational Resource was coined and initially defined by UNESCO
2005 - UNESCO OER Community of more than 700 members from 105 Member States, 67 of which are developing countries was formed
This article begins by giving an overview of the various definitions of OER and describes how these definitions have evolved over time. There is a discussion included about the term "open" and what that means from both the learner and educator perspective. Further along in the shift from distance education to online learning and finally towards OER is explained.

Advantages of OER for several stakeholders are listed, including: governments (and its citizens), institutions and educators; while some barriers are also identified. Finally, there is an entire section of this article dedicated to UNESCO's way forward and the action needed; 6 main issues are identified and discussed: awareness raising and promotion, communities and networking, capacity development, sustainability, quality assurance, and copyright.

For the purpose of this assignment, this article was a great resource to introduce the topic of OER giving some background knowledge, some of the history, as well as defining the term. The sections on advantages and disadvantages as well as action needed were great overviews for our purpose and covered the societal impacts and practicality, and briefly touched on technology. This article was lacking more detailed information regarding specific technology used to support OER as well as information touching on pedagogical implications.

Project Gutenberg - Founded by Michael Hart in 1971, this site offers free downloads of over 42,000 books
Share My Lesson - A site where teachers can view and share lesson plans and educational resources
Pinterest - This site allows users to search, save and organize information on a variety of topics
OERs can be used as tools that represent several learning theories
Social Constructivist Theories (Vygotsky, Engeström, Rogoff, Wertsch, Lave & Wenger, Dewey)

These theories outline how we derive meaning from our experiences and speak to the importance of social interaction and collaboration to learning. OERs such as 'Share My Lesson' and 'Pinterest' afford the learners with opportunities to create communities of practice, as well as engage in online mentoring relationships. In contrast with traditional didactic strategies, the role of instructor is to facilitate learning and guide learners in reaching desired learning outcomes.
Humanist/Experiential Learning Theories (Dewey, Knowles, Kolb, Rogers, Maslow, Schön)

These learning theories regard the pursuit of knowledge as an act to fulfill one's personal potential. Like constructivist theories, they acknowledge the importance of constructing meaning from information is central to learning. OERs can play a pivotal role in these types of theories, as they present learning opportunities that are often self-directed. As with social constructivist theories, the role of instructor is a guidance role, rather than a traditional, teacher-centered strategy
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