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Kinematics: Displacement, Velocity & Speed

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by

Alison Fertig

on 29 August 2011

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Transcript of Kinematics: Displacement, Velocity & Speed

1D Kinematics Calculate average speed and velocity over
the time interval of 3 minutes. A football coach paces back and forth along the sidelines. The diagram below shows several of coach's positions at various times. At each marked position, the coach makes a "U-turn" and moves in the opposite direction. In other words, the coach moves from position A to B to C to D. What is the coach's average speed and average velocity? Displacement vs. Distance Frame of Reference Average Velocity Average Speed Instantaneous Velocity Distance vs. Displacement Distance: a scalar quantity which refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion Displacement: a vector quantity which refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall change in position. Scalar vs. Vector Scalar: quantities which are fully described by a magnitude (or numerical value) alone
Vector: quantities which are fully described by both a magnitude and a direction Examples:
a. 5 m
b. 30 m/sec, East
c. 5 mi., North
d. 20 degrees Celsius
e. 256 bytes
f. 4000 Calories Average Speed vs. Average Velocity Average Speed: distance/time interval; "how fast an object is moving"
Average Velocity: displacement/time interval: "how fast an object changes
its position" Runner A is initially 6.0 km west of a flagpole and
is running with a constant velocity of 9.0 km/h due east.
Runner B is initially 5.0 km east of the flagpole and is
running with a constant velocity of 8.0 km/h due west.
What will be the distance of the two runners from the
flagpole when their paths cross? Kinematics Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of bodies (objects) and systems (groups of objects) without consideration of the forces that cause the motion. Motion Motion takes place over time and depends on the frame of reference. A frame of reference is a system for specifying the precise location of objects in space. In physics, any frame of reference can be chosen as long as it is used ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬consistently
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