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Chapter 24, Section 1-2

Africa
by

Sarah Worrell

on 15 May 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 24, Section 1-2

Chapter 24 Section 1-2 The Industrial Revolution enriched European economies

Europeans embarked on "New Imperialism"

Africans & Asians strongly resisted imperialism The French practiced direct rule, unlike the British

The Sphere of Influence
When an outside source controls trade and has exclusive investments North Africa, The Sahara Desert, and the fertile land around were mostly Muslim

Usman dan Foido
Scholar/preacher who sensed corruption in the local Hausa leaders then later called for social and religious reform Usman created a powerful Islam state in Northern Nigeria Improvements under Usman's rule
Literacy rate increased
Local wars quieted
Trade was enhanced In the forest regions, strong states like the Asante Kingdom had risen. The Asante traded with Europeans and Muslims; they also controlled many city-states.

Trade Cargo- often slaves sent to the Middle East
Ivory and copper The Zulu Tribe Ruled by the leader Shaka
Owned Southern Africa in the early 1800s
Between 1818-1828, Shaka conquered nearby people
Mass migrations and wars in his regions began Powerful city-states were formed as people migrated north
The Dutch threatened the Zulu Tribe
Dutch came from Cape Colony
Later passed from the Dutch to the British
Dutch migrated south Boers came into contact with the Zulu

Held out, but were no match with their spears against guns In the early 1800s, European nations banned transatlantic slave trading

Countries such as Liberia and Sierra-Leon helped resettle former slaves

From the 1500s-1700s, Europeans traded along the African coast
Resistance from Africans, difficult geography, and disease kept them at bay Medical advances and steamboats eventually let the Europeans in
Europeans began pushing into Africa

Richard Burton and Mungo Park set out to map Africa's rivers Catholic and Protestant missionaries followed the explorers throughout Africa

They built schools and clinics around churches that they had placed
They also fought slavery Christians had paternalistic views of Africans
Paternalistic- providing for someone in a fatherly way without giving them rights or responsibilities Dr. David Livingstone
Crisscrossed Africa for 30 years
Wrote about the people of Africa with less bias and more sympathy
Opposed slavery, which was still a profitable business for African rulers In 1869, a journalist named Henry Stanley tracked & found Dr. Livingstone

"Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" King Leopold II hired Henry to explore
Leopold's conquest set off a scramble
Britain, France, and Germany began pressing claims on Africa To avoid bloodshed, European powers met at a convention
No Africans were invited Free trade was called for on the Congo and the Nile

20 years after the convention, Europe owned most of Africa

The people redrew the map of Africa with little regard to traditional patterns of ethnic boundaries Leopold and wealthy Belgium people exploited the riches of the Congo
Ivory
Copper
Rubber There were reports of Belgian villagers
The overall population declined International outrage forced Leopold to turn over his colony to the Belgium government
Under Belgian rule, the worst abuse ended but the people still had little regard for the Congo Britain Heavily populated with many rich resources
Owned chunks of West & Africa
Gained control of Egypt and pushed into Sudan Boers- descendents of Dutch settlers
Britain clashed with the Boers
Britain acquired the Cape Colony from the Dutch in 1814
Many Boers fled British rules and went north, creating their own republics
Diamonds and gold were found on Boer land, making conflict between them and the British Join the Scramble! Boer War- lasted from 1899-1902; involved bitter fighting, and the British won at a great cost.

In 1910, Britain united the Cape Colony with the former Boer republics and created the Union of South Africa This Created a... New constitution
Government run by whites
Foundation for a system of complete racial segregation European powers joined the scramble for colonies
Upping their national image & furthering their economic growth was a major influence
Portugal acquired colonies in Angola and Mozambique
Italy had colonies in Libya and the horn of Africa
The newly united German empire owned land in Eastern & Southwest Africa Africans Resist Imperialism Algerians battled the French for many years
Samori Toure fought French forces in West Africa
Britain battled the Zulu tribe in South Africa and the Asante in West Africa
With the Asante being exiled, they went under the command of their queen Yaa Asantewaa
Nehanda- a female military leader of the Shona in Zimbabwe; even with her clever tactics, she was captured and executed In East Africa, Germans fought wars against the Yao and Herero

Germans triumphed only after burning down acres and acres of farmland, causing thousands of people to eventually die of starvation Ethiopia Survives Ethiopia = ancient Christian kingdom

Resisted European colonization; maintained independence

Divided up rival princes in domains

King Melenik II- reforming ruler who modernized Ethiopia King Melenik II planned modern roads and bridges, set up a western school system, imported the latest weapons and European officers to train his army

Battle of Adowa- Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1869, but Melenik was beyond prepared; the Ethiopians slashed their Italian invaders

Ethiopia was the only African nation aside from Liberia to preserve independence A New African Elite Emerges Emerged during the Age of Imperialism

Some middle class Africans left their cultures for westernization

Others valued African tradition; condemned western societies that upheld liberty and equality for whites only

African leaders were forging nationalist movements to pursue determinate independence by the early 1900s King Leopold II The Sphere of Influence is a type of imperialism
2 More Types of Imperialism...
Protectorate- local rulers were left in place but were expected to follow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade or missionary activities

Indirect Rule- to govern colonies, the British used sultans, chiefs, and other local rulers
Full transcript