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Transcript of Sociology Presentation
The San Francisco Chronicle front page headline reads:
This launches a string of editorials against the Japanese which rallies the anti-Japanese movement into high gear. "The Japanese Invasion: The Problem of the Hour." (Chinese Exclusion Movement) 1907, The Gentleman's Agreement of 1907 The California Board of Education passed a regulation demanding that children of Japanese descent attend separate schools of their own. Japan agreed not to issue passports to Japanese citizens wishing to immigrate and work in America. The Economic Environment Available jobs
"Buy America"/"Japan Bashing" 1982, Vincent Chin Immigration Act of 1917 a ban placed on immigration from "islands not possessed by the United States adjacent to the Continent of Asia" National Origins of 1924 Reinforcing the legal decision of Ozawa v. United States (1922) this act strengthened the decision that persons of Japanese ancestry could not become naturalized citizens. It also kept Japanese wives from immigrating to their husbands already in America. (The spirit of the treaty soon becomes undetermined.) In an attempt to register to become an American citizen, Takao Ozawa, argued that persons of Japanese descent should be included in the Naturalization Act's requirements (that only white persons and persons of African descent or African nativity could be naturalized) and be considered "white". e r Harbor After the bombing of Pearl Harbor and America's entrance into World War II prejudice and paranoia increased. Public Opinion and Media Public/Political opinion perpetuated prejudice and fear . leading to war-time propaganda "Validated" public/political opinions After Pearl Harbor The FBI rounded up over 2,000 Japanese Americans suspected of aiding Japan's war effort. None were charged with a crime.
Most were simply community leaders or shinto priests. Henry McLemore, of the Hearst press, was not satisfied with just this (like others) and rallied the cry of "Japs Must Go": "I am for the immediate removal of every Japanese on the West Coast to a point of deep interior... let 'em be pinched, hurt, and hungry. Personally, I hate Japanese. And that goes for all of them." After more demands for anti-Japanese legislation... Executive Order 9066 March, 1942 Anyone at least one-eighth Japanese was relocated.
(If even one of your greatgrandparents was Japanese) Of the approximately 127,000 Americans of Japanese descent living in the U.S. in 1940, 110,000 were relocated to a camp. Japanese Americans were forced to sell their property and businesses 5 cents to a dollar. The transition was smooth since the Japanese Americans cooperated and responded to notices in time. And they were only allowed to bring to the camps what they could carry. Camp-life wasn't as calm as it seemed, though. In defiance of the order, Fred Korematsu, an American-born citizen of Japanese descent, refused to leave his home in San Leandro, California. Yasui deliberately broke the military implemented curfew and then presenting himself at a police station after 11:00 pm in order to test the curfew’s constitutionality Was accused of violating curfew. The Executive Order won each time. January 2, 1945 Officially released.
Losses suffered (personal wealth, residences, businesses, farms) were between $185 million and $400 million. Japanese American Evacuation Claims Act 1948 Claims limited to $2,500 Claims must be submitted within 18 months of act's passage. The $131 million appropriated for it only paid ten cents for every dollar of loss. It took 17 years to process all claims. In the end, the government only paid out $38 million of the $131 million allocated by Congress. The Japanese and Japanese Americans would still face many years of economic whisplash, racial prejudice, and lack of representation/misrepresentation. Presidential Proclamation 4417 Rescinded Executive Order 9066 Apologized to Japanese American community 1976, President Gerald Ford Created social awareness about the government's failure to fully redress their losses. 1980 - 1983 Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians The gov't must offer "official apology"
The gov't should pardon Japanese Americans convicted of violating Executive Order 9066
The gov't should establish $1.5 billion fund - $20,000 paid to each of the ~60,000 survivors Authorized by Civil LIberties Act of 1988 Although the wrongs were made somewhat right, in the end, the reluctance in which the U.S. government had to admit fault and repay the victims has been difficult to forget. The fear of "yellow peril" was abated by the American victory of WWII.
Japanese Americans would go on to experience little segregation in later years since they tended to be American born and have resided in the U.S. longer. It is also because of a reltaively small population.
Struggles concerning racism (in media, as well) and the "bamboo ceiling" still exist. Last Details