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AQA GCSE PE

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Michael Robinson

on 24 February 2016

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Transcript of AQA GCSE PE

AQA GCSE Physical Education
AQA GCSE Physical Education
1. The participant as an individual
Physical & Mental demands on performance
3. Leisure & Recreation
Consider what is meant by leisure time.
Consider the choices individuals have about how they make use of their leisure time.
Consider the benefits of being involved in active leisure.
4. Diet
1. Be aware of what constitutes a balanced diet in terms of the nutrients required.
2. Be aware of the different food types and the nutrients they contain
3. Consider what proportions of food should be consumed to ensure a balanced diet.
4. Consider the problems that could be caused by an imbalance or deficiency in diet

1.1 - Age
Aim: Be aware of the effects that ageing may have on the body and how these might affect the suitability for certain activities.
Starter Activity
Flexibility:
Quite high in our teens
Tends to decrease with age
Combined with tendency to put on weight
Strength:
Decreases as we get older
Maximal strength until you are fully grown, late teens/early twenties
Why weight training is not recommended for certain age groups
Heart less efficient:
Oxygen capacity reduces with age
Arteries gradually lose elasticity, increasing blood pressure and blood flow
Skill levels:
Improve with age and experience
Improve as we grow and get stronger
Injuries:
Gradual build up of wear and tear on the body
Longer you take to recover from injuries
More chance of suffering from disorders/diseases
1. List the sports in the pictures and predict the ‘PEAK’ age for a performer in that activity.

Key Terms:

Physiology:
the functions and processes of the human body

Flexibility:
the range of movement around a joint

Peak:
at your very best - the best prepared period for you to be able to perform
Go back to the starter activity and improve your reasons for performers 'Peaking' at a certain age based on the knowledge you now have.
Task
Age Divisions
Sport responds to the factor of age by introducing age divisions into competitive sport.

How is school sport organised?

Major sports arrange competitions into age, some have flexibility by arranging them into U12, U14 etc

Some people will mature quicker and can cope with older opponents




Task

Explain why the majority of sports are arranged in particular age groups.


Homework


Due in: Tuesday 15th September 2015

Outline two physiological changes that occur with increasing age?

Choose one of the 20 Sports featured in the Paralympics and find out all the disability classifications for one particular event.
1.2 Disability & 1.3 Gender
Objectives:
Understand how disability and gender can affect your performance in sport.
Key Terms:

Inclusion:
a policy that no one should experience barriers to learning as a result of their disability, heritage, gender, special educational need, ethnicity, socialgroup, sexual orientation, race or culture

Physique:
the form, size and development of a persons body.

Metabolic:
the whole range of biochemical processes that occur within us.

Maximal Strength:
the greatest amount of weight that can be lifted in one go.

Power:
A combination of speed and strength.

What is meant by a policy of inclusion?
Starter Activity
D.I.R.T
Directed Independent Reflection Time
Review your marked work (1.1 Age) from last weeks lesson and in purple pen make improvements to your answers.

Extension: If you have no improvements to make describe another physiological factor that age affects - in the space provided or on the reverse the worksheet.
Disability:
1. How much a disability affects performance depends on both the disability and the sport.
2. Many competitions take disability into account by setting up disability categories. That way people with equivalent disabilities can compete against each other, which makes the competition fair.

Examples of Disability sports and categories from homework. Explain some examples of sporting adaptations:

Gender:
1. Men and women have different bodies:
Men tend to have; larger physiques, bigger heart and lung capacities, which means they naturally have higher levels of cardiovascular fitness. Mens metabolism better at supplying energy to their muscles.

2. Men are generally stronger; bigger muscles due to higher levels of testosterone. Women have less total muscle mass.

3. Women are generally more flexible; this is partly because they've got less muscle mass. Therefore competition at younger ages between boys and girls is fairer.


Split these key points into male/female on your worksheet
Homework

Due in: Tuesday 22nd September

Describe two physical differences that exist between males and females. Go on to explain why competition is usually single sex.

Culture is an important influence when an individual is choosing a sport or activity to participate in. Find out about the ‘British Empire’, the countries that were part of it and the sporting activities that were introduced into their culture by the British.

1.4 Culture
Objectives:
Consider the ways some cultures may encourage greater levels of participation than others
Consider how religion may be a significant factor in some cultures
Consider how gender may be a significant factor in some cultures
Starter Activity:
Participation Influences: Using your homework, in pairs, share ideas on the sports that the British Empire introduced to other countries and explain any you have not researched below:

Participation Influences
The cultural traditions and historical background of a society will set the scene for what is considered normal and acceptable within that culture.
For example: Baseball - USA, Football - England.
Caribbean countries (west indies) excel at sports that were introduced by the British when they were part of the British Empire.
These countries of the British Empire take part in a international event every four years to celebrate these sports and cultures coming together. Does anyone know what this event is?
Religion
Particular cultures are linked to specific religions and they sometimes have traditional values and guidelines that they insist are followed.
Muslim Cultures - dress codes that require certain clothing to be worn. e.g. Monty Panesar who has to wear a turban when he plays cricket.
Many Muslims 'Fast' during religious periods and this can affect performance when training and competing
Some devout Christians refuse to train or compete on a Sunday. A famous example of this was triple jumper Jonathan Edwards.
Gender
The factor of gender is closely related to religion due to the strict guidelines that relate specifically to females.
Sprinter Tahmina Kohistani of Afghanistan had to wear a hijab and long clothing to conform with Islamic modesty laws when competing at London 2012.
Many females who live in cultures with extreme religious views find it difficult to train and compete.
In some cultures females are not even allowed to take part in some sports, for example Football or Rugby (despite major developments globally)
Exam Question:
Explain how the culture someone grows up in might affect the type of activity they decide to participate in (4 marks).

Key Terms:

Culture:
the ideas, customs and social behaviour of a particular people or society

Fast:
to eat only certain types of food or to reduce food intake

Devout:
devoted or dedicated to

Hijab:
a head covering that must be worn in public by some women
Objectives:
Consider the three types of extreme somatotype that exist
Consider the most suitable body type for a role or position in a particular sport
1.5 Physique
Starter Activity
From the descriptions below list the sports that these body types would be most suited to.
Somatotypes
As small groups use the 'Playdough' to create the three different body types using the descriptions below.

Once you have created the three extreme somatotypes draw all three onto your worksheet and list the key characteristics below.
Key Term:
Somatotype - different body types based on shape,

Body Composition - the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone
Task
Exam Question
For one of the identified body types, describe a sport or event they would be suited to and explain why this is so (2 marks).
Homework
Due: 29th September

1.5 Physique & 1.6 Environment
Endomorph
Wide Hips
Wide shoulders
Pear shaped body
A tendency to gain fat, especially on upper arms and thighs
Short legs in relation to the rest of their body
Mesomorph
Wide Shoulders
Muscled arms & legs
Narrow hips
Wedge shaped body
Minimum amount of fat
Ectomorph
Long, slender and thin
Narrow shoulders and hips
Thin arms & legs
Very little muscle and body fat
Endomorph
Wide Hips
Wide shoulders
Pear shaped body
A tendency to gain fat, especially on upper arms and thighs
Short legs in relation to the rest of their body
Mesomorph
Wide Shoulders
Muscled arms & legs
Narrow hips
Wedge shaped body
Minimum amount of fat
Ectomorph
Long, slender and thin
Narrow shoulders and hips
Thin arms & legs
Very little muscle and body fat
What sports would these somatotypes be suited to?
Remember not all performers fit the expected somatotype. For example not all basketball players are over 2m tall!
1.6 Environment
1.7 Risk and Challenge
Consider the aspect of challenge that is present in physical activity
Consider the need for carrying out a risk assessment
Consider the importance of being aware of risk control

Starter Activity
Key Terms

CHALLENGE
: A test of your ability or resources in a demanding situation.

RISK:
The possibility of suffering harm, loss or danger.
Risk Assessment and Risk Control


It is vital that potential hazards or dangers are spotted before physical activity is undertaken.
Risk Assessment = identifying the risks
Risk Control = the organisers and participants doing everything to ensure that the activity continues in a safe manner.

One of the main appeals to many participants of physical activity is that it offers them both a CHALLENGE and an acceptable level of RISK. This must always remain in balance to ensure that activities are safe and suitable
Risk Control
Participants should always perform properly within the rules and regulations of the activity and avoid foul play and inappropriate behaviour
e.g. keeping equipment in good order and that they are not wearing any jewellery.

Organisers need to ensure that they are fully qualified and knowledgeable to be in charge of a group and not have too many people taking part and that the group has warmed up properly.

Safeguards - It is important to always have first aid equipment available and be aware of where qualified first aiders or telephones are located.
Exam Question
Why would some individuals choose to take part in an activity involving risk? (4 marks)
Homework
Due: 13th October 2015

1.7 Risk & Challenge
1.8 Activity Levels
1.8 Activity Levels and needs
& 1.9 Training
Consider how the demands of an activity individual
Consider the benefits to be gained by high activity levels
Consider the different levels of participation linked to training

Starter Activity

Underline the words associated with COMPETITIVE sport and leave words that describe RECREATIONAL sport.

FUN HIGHLY COMMITTED TRAINING SESSIONS
SKILL CONVENIENT TIME PROFESSIONAL
RELAXATION HOBBIES FITNESS TRAINING

*KEY TERMS*
Competitive:
an activity that involves some form of contest, rivalry or game.
Recreational:
any form of play, amusement or relaxation performed as games, sports or hobbies.

At what point does sport stop being for fun and become more about competition?

List as many benefits you can think of that will result from regular exercise.

All of the benefits can be described as one of 3 main categories:
• Health benefits
• Social benefits
• Mental benefits

1.9 Training
Level of participation
Someone taking part in sport at the highest level will seek to train as often as possible. For some performers this can be on a daily basis.
Top athletes consider using Periodisation. This is done to make sure athletes Peak at the correct time.
Most sports perform for certain periods of time and have ‘time off’. However activities can be made all-year-round. For example, a cricketer plays in England for 6 months and then Australia for 6 months.

Match these 3 periods of a season with their definition
Mainly a period of rest and recovery but there is still a need to keep up levels of general fitness.

Time leading up to when the majority of competition will take place and is a time of preparation, concentrating on fitness and even developing techniques for the activity.

Main competitive period and there would need to be concentration on skills, ongoing fitness sessions as well as taking part in actual competition.

*KEY TERMS*
PERIODISATION:
the different parts of a training programme.
PEAK:
at your very best- the best prepared period for you to be able to perform.
GENERAL FITNESS:
a state of general good health and to be able to carry out activities at a relatively low level.

Revision for End of Unit exam
on
1. The participant as an individual

Tuesday 20th October 2015
Available time
Probably the most crucial factor in ‘making it’. Only professionals can train full time. Amateurs cannot do this. In order to do get better, you need to train more; however, factors can prevent this from happening.
List factors that can affect the time people have to train

Available Funds
Amount of money you have available will also have an effect, as more funding can mean more time, better training facilities and equipment. Personal coaches can be hired to help with training.
Many sports performers seek sponsorship to let them train, either at high level or more regularly.
Companies will give performer’s money to train and/or equipment as long as they promote the brand.



Exam Question:
How can a lack of funds restrict the levels of training possible? (2 marks)


Starter Activity
Task 1
What kind of sports could you participate in in these environments?
What facilities/spaces are available these areas?
In your groups of 4 add keywords, sentences or phrases related to the question above onto the tables to make a mind map for the following environments:

Urban Environment
Country Environment
Mountain Environments
Coastal Environments
Colder Environments
Warmer Environments

How does the environment of the place where a person lives affect opportunities for participation in sport and physical activity?

Use the 6 table mind maps have all just produced to help you with your answer.
Exam Question
Peer Assessment
Use the markscheme provided to mark your partners work and then give them specific feedback on WWW and EBI.
D.I.R.T
Using a purple pen, add to your answer using the feedback from your partner
How does the environment of the place where a person lives affect opportunities for participation in sport and physical activity?
Plenary
In groups add any extra information to the tables. Do this individually, 1 person from each group at a time.
Fatigue
Fatigue is a feeling of extreme tiredness caused by high levels of exertion in a physical activity. This can lead to loss of strength and energy.

Fatigue will cause a player to become:
slower, lose concentration, decrease their skill level and stop playing.

Coaches may substitute players who are fatigued to reduced their risk of injury and ensure the team continue to play well.

Stress
Stress is the body’s reaction to change- this can be physical, mental or emotional.

A player is more likely to experience stress when they are playing in front of a crowd, against a tough opposition and at the highest levels of competition.

W

Discuss with a partner of when you have been anxious during sport.

Starter Activity

Complete the Sports Competition Anxiety Test

Less than 17 You have a low level of anxiety
17 to 24 You have an average level of anxiety
More than 24 You have a high level of anxiety

Key Terms:

Local Muscular Fatigue:
when a muscle, or group of muscles is unable to carry on contracting and movement stops.

Apprehensive:
fearful about the future

Motivation:
your drive to succeed and desire and energy to achieve something
Exam Question:
Explain how anxiety can affect a performers skill level.
Use the grid to help plan your exam question answer.

Then attempt the question:

What affect does fatigue and stress have on sporting performance?
Starter Activity

Link the types of injuries with their description, once you are sure then summerise the descriptions


Internally Caused injuries

Overuse injuries



Sudden Injuries




Externally caused injuries

Foul Play



Impact injuries



Equipment/Clothing



Accidents




Exam Question:
Explain what is meant by an overuse injury. (2 marks)



Explain why the correct technique is vital when preventing injuries (2 marks).

1.Carry out a survey regarding all of the injuries that members of your group (including yourself) have experienced within the last year and categorise them as internally or externally caused injuries.
2. Label Internal (Overuse, Sudden), External (Foul Play/Incorrect Actions, Impact, Equipment, Accidents)

Foul Play or Incorrect Actions …this involves other players, usually opponents, and these types of injuries can often be quite serious, which is why there are rules to prevent them happening.


Impact Injuries … many activities permit physical contact within the rules of the game (hockey, rugby, football, for example) Their can also be impact with equipment, such as goal posts, and impact with the playing surface itself, such as outdoor court area, a sports hall floor or artificial turf.
Equipment/Clothing … this could be equipment that is damaged (splinters from old hockey sticks), faulty (non-fixed portable goals) or badly fitting, (trainers that are too tight), inappropriate clothing (baggy clothing in trampolining).


Accidents … whatever precautions are in place, there will always be some of these.


Overuse Injuries … these can be caused by either training or performing too much and can include stress fractures and muscle and tendon injuries. Tennis players suffer from tennis elbow and many footballers suffer from cartilage damage.

Sudden Injuries … when you are taking part in physical activity there is also a strain put on the body owing to lots of stretching, twisting and turning, often resulting in problems, such as hamstring pulls.




Starter

Sort these injuries into Externally caused and Internally caused injuries, fill in the table provided.









Common Injuries

Using pages 34/35. Research the common injuries that can occur during sport and then make notes on these injuries.
Key Terms
Sprains:
the overstretching or tearing of ligaments

Strains: the overstretching or tearing of a muscle
Exam Questions:
What is meant by the RICE principle (2 marks).


Explain and describe the difference between a strain and a sprain (2 marks).


A suitable warm up is important before taking part in sport. Describe the following:
Two reasons why a warm up is necessary (2 marks)


An outline of a suitable warm up (2 marks)

2.4 Respiratory System: aerobic

Using the sheet provided on your tables try to replicate the picture shown to you by Mr Robinson
Nasal Cavity
Mouth
Pharynx (throat)
Trachea (wind pipe)
Left Bronchus
Right Broncus
Alveoli
Broncioles
Diaphragm
Pleura
The action of breathing:

When we breath the chest cavity changes shape and size - the diaphragm changes from a dome shape as it flattens and moves downwards.

As this happens the intercostal muscles raise the ribs up and push out the sternum, which makes the cavity larger.

This reduces the pressure inside the chest cavity and causes air to be sucked into the lungs.

The air we breath in is high in oxygen and nitrogen but low in carbon dioxide.

When we breathe out the reverse process occurs but the air breathed out is high in nitrogen and carbon dioxide as the full process of gaseous exchange takes place.
Exam Question:
What happens to the breathing rate as you exercise? (2marks)




Give a simple definition of what aerobic respiration is (2marks).




Where does gaseous exchange take place? (1mark).

Key Terms
Gaseous Exchange:
the process where oxygen is taken in from the air and exchanged for carbon dioxide

Alveoli:
small air sacs in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place

Intercostal muscles:
abdominal muscles inbetween the ribs that assist in the process of breathing

Sternum:
the chest or breastbone
Breathing rate:

Breathing rate increases greatly as we exercise. it can increase up to three times the rate when we are at rest.
Aerobic respiration:

'Respiration that occurs in the presence of oxygen'

glucose + oxygen --> energy + carbon dioxide + water

This type of respiration is used when the body continues an activity for a long period of time and the energy used is produced using oxygen.

In order for the aerobic system to work efficiently, there has to be a constant supply of oxygen to the body.
Voice box
Starter Activity

Consider the type of exercises that use aerobic and anaerobic respiration, choose a sport and then give an example. Do not just write football!!

e.g. 30m sprint in football (anaerobic)

Add your examples to the spider diagram
Anaerobic respiration

While the aerobic system is respiration in the presence of oxygen, anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen and is summarised as:

Glucose --> Energy --> Lactic Acid

This type of respiration occurs when the body works without sufficient oxygen supplied to the muscles
Oxygen debt

This is what happens as a result of the muscles respiring anaerobically.

1. During high intensity exercise we call on glycogen stores in the body as an alternative energy supply.

2. We can only respire anaerobically for a max of approx 60 seconds. In this time we are effectively 'borrowing' oxygen, which is then owed to the body.

This is known as Oxygen Debt.
The recovery period

Straight after any vigorous exercise we have to take in extra oxygen (feeling short of breath is normal) which helps to convert the possibly painful presence of lactic acid into simple waste products that have to be removed from the body.

Expiration of breath - removes carbon dioxide and other waste products from the lungs.

Perspiration - is a form of temperature control and also removes excess water such as sweat at the same time. Heat released helps to stop us overheating.

Excretion through Urine and Faeces - removes excess water.




Key Terms

Glycogen: the main form of carbohydrate storage, which is converted into glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs

Lactic Acid: A mild poison and waste product of anaerobic respiration
Exam Question:

Give a simple definition of anaerobic respiration (2marks)

What is oxygen debt? (4 marks)

Starter Activity


Functions of the circulatory system

The basic function is to transport by carrying blood. Working together with the respiratory system, this achieves the following:

1. The blood carries the oxygen, water, nutrients throughout the body and transports and removes the waste

2. Protection is provided when antibodies that fight infection are carried in the blood. Blood can clot to seal cuts and wounds.

3. Body temperature is regulated as the blood absorbs body heat and carries it to the lungs and skin where it is released.
The Heart

The heart is basically a very efficient pump. Like any other muscle it contracts and relaxes - every instance in which it does is called a heartbeat, with an average of 72 heartbeats per minute for an adult at rest.

This heart rate will increase with exercise as the heart is called upon to supply more oxygen to the working muscles. It has to increase quite considerably to be able to cope with strenuous exercise.
Blood Vessels

Blood Vessels allow the blood to flow. There are three different types:

Arteries - these have thick walls and carry
oxygenated
blood at high pressure away from the heart through the aorta They do not have any valves and have quite elastic walls. The pulse can be located in arteries.

Veins - These carry
deoxygenated
blood back to the heart. They have thinner walls than arteries, which are less elastic. They also have valves to make sure that the blood does not flow backwards.

Capillaries - these are microscopic vessels that link the arteries to the veins and are very thin to allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through there walls.
Key Terms:

Heart Rate:
The number of times your heart beats in one minute, which is one contraction and relaxation of the heart.

Pulse:
a recording of the rate per minute at which the heart beats
Complete the worksheet using the statements below:

Left atrium – oxygenated blood pumped to the…
• Right atrium – pumps deoxygenated blood to the…
• Left ventricle – takes oxygenated blood out of the
heart.
• Vena cava – takes deoxygenated blood back to the
heart.
• Lungs – blood picks up oxygen and exits lungs
via the…
• Pulmonary vein – takes oxygenated blood
to the…
• Body – oxygen is used by working muscles and
then to the…
Answers:
4. Left atrium – oxygenated blood pumped to the…
9. Right atrium – pumps deoxygenated blood to the…
5. Left ventricle – takes oxygenated blood out of the
heart.
8. Vena cava – takes deoxygenated blood back to the
heart.
2. Lungs – blood picks up oxygen and exits lungs
via the…
3. Pulmonary vein – takes oxygenated blood
to the…
7. Body – oxygen is used by working muscles and
then to the…
Starter Activity

Nominations for Sports Personality of the year have just been announced. Can you decide who should win but with a slight change in rules. Pick a winner from this group of sports stars based on who you believe has the greatest physical and mental demands on performance.













Consider; fatigue and stress, injuries that can occur in their sport, the demands on respiratory system and cardiovascular system.

Revision Rotation with Exam Questions.
Each group has around 5 minutes to complete each task and then attempt the exam question that accompanies it.
D.I.R.T:
With a partner swap over A3 sheets and peer assess your partner’s Exam question answers. Add any changes you would make in purple pen.

Plenary: Using your knowledge from this unit of work answer the following key question:
Of all the factors that affect performance the most important of these is the respiratory system. Do you agree or disagree with this?
If ‘the respiratory system’ is not the most important factor then which one is? As a group look at your answers and be prepared to voice your opinion.

Key Question/Statement: Of all the factors that affect performance the most important of these is the respiratory system. Do you agree or disagree with this?

LO: To understand the factors that affect performance both physical and mental and create a revision resource to use before the end of unit test.

Success Criteria

Some – Can answer all exam questions (10) confidently and act as a coach for other groups of students
Most – Can answer all exam questions (10) correctly after peer feedback
All – Can answer most exam question (7-10) correctly after peer feedback

DIRT

Reflect on each peice of your marked work from this unit. Work through from 2.1 through to 2.7 and add changes to exam questions and tasks in 'purple pen.

Use the workbooks and your fellow students on your table to help you.
Revision Resource

Complete the A3 revision resource started before Christmas (in normal pen).

You may use the workbooks to help.
Homework

Revise for end of unit test

Wednesday 6th January
Starter

Move around the class and survey they types of leisure activities your classmates take part in.



Leisure time is the time in which we get to choose what we do. The rest of the time we do things that we have to do. The amount of leisure time people have is a lot more than it used to be for a number of reasons, and so what people choose to do in this time is also changing and becoming more important to us.

Leisure is

"free time when you're not meeting social or bodily needs"

Social needs are things like work and chores

Bodily needs are mainly eating and sleeping

Most people spend the rest of their time doing some form of recreation

Leisure
Recreation is

"something you do in your leisure time because you want to"

Recreation can be exercise based, but it is different to sport. Sport is always played to win and has set rules.

Physical recreation isn't as competitive, you are only competing against yourself and so can set your own rules!

Key Terms
Low-Impact:
not strenuous with little or no pressure on the joints



Exam Questions:

Which of the following would not be considered to be an active leisure activity? (1mark)
A: visiting the library
B: Attending a yoga class
C: Rambling
D: Attending an aerobics class

What is leisure time? (2 marks)


3.2 Recreation
Starter:
Describe three different passive leisure activities.

Write down your main active leisure activities.

Key Terms:

Intrinsic Reward:
something that gives a person or individual an internal satisfaction derived from doing something well.

Extrinsic Reward:
something that is done for a particular reward that is visible to others.

Trend:
the latest and most popular attraction or activity.
19th January 2016
LO: 1)What is leisure time?
2) What are the benefits of leisure time
3) Why has leisure time increased?

On the reverse of your sheet, Draw and complete the following table:


Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Starter: In small groups match the nutrients with their information and how it helps an individual.

Then make notes on these in the table provided
Key terms
Nutrients: the substances that make up food

Dehydration: the rapid loss of water from the body

Body Image: a personal concept of your own physical appearance
Dietary Considerations

No single food can provide all the nutrients the body needs, that is why it is important to eat a variety of foods. There are 5 main food groups:
bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods
fruit and vegetables
milk and diary products
meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-diary products
food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar
Failing to maintain this balance could result in the following dietary imbalance or deficiencies:

Malnutrition
- this is a physical weakness resulting from insufficient food or unbalanced diet.

Obesity
- this is a condition of being extremely fat or overweight which results in health problems

Anorexia
- this is an eating disorder relating to a fear of gaining weight, self starvation and a distorted body image.
Homework
Due in Tuesday 26th January 2016

Find out about the diet of an athlete for your sport. Produce a written A4 sheet detailing the types of foods they eat and why.
Starter:

On your table discuss the athletes you researched for homework and list the main foods they used for energy in their sport.

Then state the nutrients gained from that food.

eg: Pasta - Carbohydrates
Homework:
Due Tuesday 2nd February

Find a definition of 'health' and bring it to next weeks lesson
Exam Questions:
Attempt the exam questions using the information from this lesson
Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximise the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.

Simple Carbohydrates - Sugars
Complex Carbohydrates - Pasta, bread, rice
Levels Of Participation:
Eating food is necessary to provide the body with energy. Energy is needed even when you are resting.

As soon as you become more active you need to take on board more calories.
Basal Metabolic Rate
- the minimum rate of energy required to keep all of the life processes of the body maintained when it is at rest.

Calorie
- a unit that measures heat or energy production in the body.

Glycogen
- the form of carbohydrate storage, which is converted into glucosen to be used as energy.
5. Health, Fitness and a Healthy Active Lifestyle

5.1 General Health

Objectives:
Define Good Health
Consider the components that combine to affect the health of an individual and their link to physical activity
Using your homework, on your tables combine your research on 'health' to create a definition to present to the class.

Health has been defined by the World Health Organisation as:

"A state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".
Components that can influence health, add these to your spider diagram:

Use and Misuse of Substances:
Smoking - in the long term this can cause greater risk of developing serious diseases such as lung cancer, heart disease and chronic bronchitis.

Alcohol - in the short term this can cause drunkeness, with a lack of coordination and vomiting. In the long term damage to the liver, muscles and heart as well as mental illness and damage to the immune system.

Drugs - these can include illegal drugs such as heroin or marijuana, prescription drugs or performance-enhancing drugs.

Sex Education
Family Life
Safety in different environments
Health-related exercise
Nutrition
Personal Hygiene
Environmental
Psychological

On your table using your A3 paper discuss and make a rough draft of the spider diagram:

Components that can affect your Health

Complete the Exam Questions

Wednesday's lesson will be in Room 17
Starter:

Make a list of diseases or illnesses that can occur without regular exercise.

Can you be fit but not healthy? Give examples.
Option 1
Drug-taking in sport is all too common, so find out about some recent drug-taking controversy that has occurred in a major sport or event. Find out which particular drug was used and what the possible side effects of using it could be.

Create a factsheet on word/publisher.



Option 2
Find out more about performance-enhancing drugs and find some information regarding performers who have been caught taking them and the action that was then taken against them.

Create a factsheet on word/publisher.

Extension Task/Homework:
Due Tuesday 9th February

Healthy Active Lifestyle

Produce a poster encouraging more people to adopt good exercise habits, such as Cycling to school.


5.3 The structure of the skeletal system
The skeletal system has 5 particular functions, which are linked directly to its structure:

Movement
at joints
Support
for muscles and vital organs
Shape
for maintaing our basic body shape
Protection
, such as the skull protecting the brain
Blood-cell production
in the bone marrow

We all know that exercise is good for you, but why? What effect does exercise have on you and your body?



Physical benefits
•Improved body shape - including muscle tone and posture
•Strengthens bones and muscles
•Reduces the chance of illness so increasing life expectancy
•Improves endurance, flexibility and overall fitness

Mental benefits:
•Helps you to deal with stress and tension
•Improves self-confidence
•Increases motivation
•Gives you something to aim for - a challenge

Social Benefits:
•Helps you meet new people and make friends
•Improves your teamwork and cooperation



The amount of exercise you do will vary depending on your physical fitness and your long-term goals. For example, if you have not exercised for a while or ever before, have been ill or are reaching middle age or older you need to start slowly. If your aim is to run a marathon you will need to do more training than someone who is aiming to walk down the road without getting out of breath.


Exercise Guidelines
•Start gently and gradually increase the time and intensity of your exercise as it gets easier
•Exercise often - 20 minutes three times a week is better than 60 minutes once a week
•Don't overdo it - exercise shouldn't be painful or make you ill or overly tired afterwards.

Make a poster citing the benefits of one the above!
It should have a slogan and be eye catching.

Key Terms:
Fitness: good health or good condition, especially as the result of exercise and proper nutrition.

Exercise: activity that requires physical or mental exertion, especially when performed to develop or maintain fitness.

Sedentary: sitting down or being physically inactive for long periods of time.

Attempt the Exam Questions
Starter: Why do i take part in physical activity?
Add examples to the three benefits of physical activity on the A3 sheets on your table

Cartilage
Joint surfaces are also covered by smooth, slippery hyaline cartilage. This cartilage aids in the production of synovial fluid and is smooth and hard to help movement. Joints also include white fibro-cartilage. This cartilage is tough and elastic, acting as a shock absorber providing vital cushioning against impacts. Synovial joints such as the Hinge joint contain fibro-cartilage to cushion the joint against the impact of walking, running and jumping.













Ligaments and Tendons
Ligaments and tendons hold joints together. Ligaments attach bones to bones and they are strong elastic fibres. Tendons attach muscles to bones. All of the major joints of the body rely on ligaments and tendons for balance and stability. Both ligaments and tendons can be strained or torn as a result of violent movement.

Joints
Joints are found where two or more bones meet. Most moving joints are called Synovial Joints (Hinge, Ball And Socket, Pivot, Saddle, Gliding, Condyloid) they are enclosed inside a capsule filled with a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid. This fluid greatly reduces the friction on the joint surfaces as they move against each other. A membrane seals the capsule so that the fluid does not leak out.

Starter:
PROTECTING BONES
At the top of each oval below is the name of a protective bone. Add to the ovals the organs that each bone protects
Full transcript