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& inclusion in the classroom - Candice Zoch, Flinders University

on 20 June 2014

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Transcript of Differentiation

diversity and inclusion profile
diversity and inclusion profile
professional reflections
diversity and inclusion profile
diversity and inclusion profile.
& inclusion in classroom practice
Differentiation & inclusion
Taking those examples into consideration this is my definition of differentiation and inclusion;
Inclusion is allowing every student to participate in your class regardless of their background, knowledge or abilities (physical or mental). Inclusion allows all members of the school to feel connected to their environment and helps promotes a positive learning experience.
Differentiation is when educators provide multiple tasks at different levels of understanding to provide learning opportunities for all students across all topics.
By having these two strategies in the classroom students are able to participate in activities which are catered to meet their individual needs (prior knowledge, readiness, learning difficulties/disabilities, learning styles, etc).
Differentiation and inclusion in practice.
Differentiation and inclusion are vital in today's diverse classroom, however implementing these two important concepts into the classroom can be very challenging.

This is another example of how and what differentiation might look like in the classroom.
Providing multiple assignments within each topic, tailored for students of different levels of achievement.
Allowing students to choose (with teacher's guidance) ways to learn and how to demonstrate what they have learned.
Permitting students to progress at their own pace through new material.
Structuring class assignments that require high levels of critical thinking and varied responses.
Having high expectations for all students.
Creating learning centers with activities that cater to different learning styles, readiness and levels of interest.
Providing students with opportunities to explore topics in which they have strong interest and find personal meaning.
Dr. Susan Allan.

so what is differentiation?
An example of differentiation by Carol Tomlinson
School Context
My placement Primary School was founded in 1911, and is located in a semi-rural community, nine kilometres from Mildura. It is the only public building to identify the area. The school has a current population of 227 students who are drawn mainly from surrounding horticultural properties and low density housing. The school has attractive and spacious grounds with excellent sporting facilities. There is a strong sense of community within the school and all families are encouraged to participate in a wide variety of school programs. This primary school has been recognised for its innovative environmental programs.
We provide our students with the skills to become lifelong learners who are responsible, productive citizens of the global community.

School Key Improvement Strategies:
To embed a whole school engagement and well being plan that includes strategies to build student connectedness to school, positive relationships and engagement in learning through engaging all students in their learning.

Student Learning Goals:
To improve student achievement in literacy and numeracy throughout the school.

"We strive to ensure that each and every child realises their full potential in a dynamic learning environment".

Throughout my placement I was able to see and use a lot of differentiated strategies which helped to meet the needs of each student in my class.

Differentiated strategies implemented
assess student knowledge and understanding before teaching
have clear learning objectives
develop a rich curriculum and content to teach
use backwards by design to help plan units/lessons
use anchor activities (mini lessons)
use assistive technology
have flexible groupings
encourage reflection
provide feedback (prompt and revelant)
use scaffold/tired lessons plans
use a variety of assessment tools
provide authentic work
use IEP or NEP to help students learn
What have you learned about yourself that you will take into your next teaching experience?
Throughout my placement I worked really hard to differentiate all my lessons and provide great learning experiences for all students. I learnt that it is important to
always teach with purpose and focus
make learning engaging and challenging
have high expectations of all students
provide ongoing assessment and proactively plan
create a safe and productive classroom environment
always try and meet the needs of every student
Learning and future goals
Core Learning Values
- Learning
o Being motivated and engaged
o High expectations
- Community
o Actively involved
o Making a positive contribution
- Environment
o Being responsible
o Having an understanding
- Relationships
o Accept and value differences
o Treat other with respect and empathy

school mission statement
These are some examples of differentiation across different topics:
Team teaching enabled us to differentiate easier as students who were still understanding beginning concepts could spend more time learning about it and experimenting with different materials (blocks, sticks, counters, calculators, cars, shapes, polyplugs, Maths 300, individual whiteboards, tens frames and online games/programs). Students who were ready to move were able to be challenged with more complex concepts still with teacher guidance. This enabled all students to learn at their own level of understanding and have a teacher to assist and guide discovery..
Students were given a beginning spelling test of words that they had been learning. After seeing the results of each students test, students were given a personal spelling list each week which they needed to learn and practice. New words were still learnt throughout the week and placed on a word wall for students to use in their sentences. All student had to learn the same high frequency words, but this made it challenging for all students as they were at their own level of readiness (some students would be learning 2 letter words while others were learning 3, 4, or more letter words).
differentiation in practice
Types of student differences :
Learning Differences:
learning preferences
mutli-aged classrooms
diverse cultural backgrounds
academically gifted
behavioural problems
Learning Disabilities
ADHD - Attention Deficit and Hypertension Disorder
Premature Children
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Auditory or visual processing disorder
reflection on Differentiation

Literacy intervention
There are 2 Reading Recovery trained teachers who provide Literacy support to individuals and small groups in grades Prep and One. This early intervention program enables children to make accelerated progress in reading.

Some students within the school have one on one assistance from a SSO which helps them to learn and develop at their own pace.

Staff Development
All staff have to meet the requirements of AITSL Professional Teaching Standards. Some of the standards link strongly to inclusion and differentiation. These standards were often discussed in staff meetings and team planning.

Professional Teaching Standards linked to differentiation and inclusion
1.1 - physical, social, intellectual development and characteristics of students.
1.2 - understand students and how they learn
1.5 - differentiate teaching to meet the specific learning needs of students
1.6 - strategies to support full participation of students with disabilities
2.3 - curriculum, assessment and reporting
3.1 - establish challenging learning goals
4.2 - manage classroom activities
5.2 - provide feedback to students on their learning
6.4 - apply professional learning and improve student learning
7.1 - meet professional ethics and responsibilities
AITSL 7 Standards App
What factors helped you to differentiate effectively?
number of resources - this school had a great number of resources and teaching ideas to help cater for each students individual needs.
team teaching - this worked really well in the classroom as student were being challenged at an appropriate level. This did not mean students were in the same groups all the time, it allowed them for further exploration, understanding and development.
knowing the students - the teacher knew the students inside and out. As I worked with them more and assessed their work I began to know them as well and this helped me to plan more effectively and differentiate to each student and their learning needs.
What factors (personal or environmental) made it challenging to differentiate?
giving directions for multiple tasks
minimising movement and transition time
helping each group - providing feedback or instruction
marking/checking all students work
managing behaviour
the classroom environment - space and time
meeting each students needs
differentiating every lesson
so What is inclusion?
Inclusion is defined by Ainsow and Miles (2008) using four key factors.
sense of belonging
These factors apply not only to students but to the staff, parents and community of a school. All of these factors must be present for inclusion to be successful in meeting the needs of all individuals.
Allan, Susan Dr. Differentiated Instruction, Curriculum, Assessment. URL <http://differentiatedinstruction.net/ >.
Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. 2014. Australian Professional Standards for Teachers, URL < http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/standards/list.>
Cravens, Jesse. Differentiated Instruction
Irymple South Primary School, 2008. Website URL <www.irymplesouthps.vic.edu.au >
Jarvis, Jane 2013, 'Differentiating learning experiences for diverse students', in Hudson, Peter (ed.), Learning to teach in the primary school, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, Vic., pp. 52-70.
McTighe, Jay & O'Connor, Ken 2005, 'Seven practices for effective learning', Educational Leadership, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 10-17.
Nelson, George D 2001, 'Choosing content that's worth knowing', Educational Leadership, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 12-16.
Tomlinson, Carol A 2006, 'Considering evidence of learning in diverse classrooms', in Tomlinson, Carol A & McTighe, Jay, Integrating differentiated instruction & understanding by design: connecting content and kids, Hawker Brownlow Education, Heatherton, Vic, pp. 59-82.
Tomlinson, Carol. 2009. Differentiation Central, Reach Every Learner Every Day Through Differentiated Instruction, URL <http://www.diffcentral.com/index.html > Curry School of Education, University of Virginia.
Tomlinson, Carol Ann 2004, 'The how to's of planning lessons differentiated by readiness', in Tomlinson, Carol A, How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms, 2nd edn, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Va, pp. 45-51.
I believe this school had a good grasp on the meaning and strategies of differentiation and inclusion. I saw many forms of differentiation and inclusion through all the year levels and had good discussions with teachers about their individual approach. All of the teachers work really hard to cater for each students individual needs and are continuing to learn about new strategies and ideas which can implemented into the classroom.
"That fact that students differ may be inconvenient, but is it inescapable. Adapting to diversity is the inevitable price of productivity, high standards and fairness to kids" - Theodore Sizer, Brown University.
What goals do you still have for yourself?
I know I am still learning and developing my knowledge about differentiation and inclusion so I have many goals for the future. Some of my future goals are to
continue to research different difficulties and disabilities and how to cater for their individual needs
be better at recognising and removing learning barriers
try new and varied tasks to motivate the difficult learners
communicate effectively and openly with parents about their children
make sure students are not only engaged and working at their appropriate level of understanding but are also actually learning new, exciting and important things through differentiated instruction.
Differentiation can be defined through three pillars - philosophy, principles and practices.
being responsible for each students and thier learning
recognising and removing learning barriers
have a positive learning environment
high quality curriculum
ongoing assessment and informed planning
flexible grouping
challenging tasks
planning to meet each learning profile
collaboratively planning with students and special education staff.
Jane Jarvis
special support programs
Candice Zoch
Full transcript