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Chapter 5 - Consciousness
Transcript of Chapter 5 - Consciousness
The fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others Are zombies conscious? mind? mind? mind? mind? mind? mind? mind? mind? Mind/body problem - Four Basic Properties Intentionality Unity The quality of being directed toward an object Resistance to division Selectivity Capacity to include some objects but not others Transience The tendency to change mysteries of What do you notice first? Why? Duck or rabbit? Why not both? Cocktail party phenomenon People tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby What Kim Kardashian hears at parties? Is she concentrating on driving, talking on the phone, or drinking coffee? causes Dichotic listening effect People wearing headphones are presented with different messages in each ear, but only notice what is said in the ear they attend to. nature of Levels of Consciousness nature of Minimal consciousness A low-level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior
Ex: Someone pokes you in your sleep and you roll over even though you may not think you had the experience at all Full consciousness Consciousness in which you know and are able to report your mental state
Ex: The state we normally operate in while awake Self-consciousness A distinct level of consciousness in which the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object nature of Conscious Contents Mental Control The attempt to change conscious states of mind Thought Supression The conscious avoidance of a thought Rebound effect of thought suppression The tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression Ironic processes of mental control Mental processes that can produce ironic errors because monitoring for errors can itself produce them What do you do when you don't want to think about homework? Don't think about white bears! Freudian Unconscious Dynamic unconscious An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces Repression A mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness A Modern View of the Cognitive Unconscious Cognitive unconscious The mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person Subliminal perception A thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving Sleep & Dreaming Sleep Cycle Circadian rhythm A naturally occurring 24-hour cycle Sleep Disorders Dream Theories Manifest Content A dream's apparent topic or superficial meaning Latent Content A dream's true underlying meaning REM sleep A stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements (REM) and a high level of brain activity Stages of sleep during the night Insomnia Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep Sleep apnea A disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep Somnambulism (sleepwalking) Occurs when the person arises and walks around while asleep Narcolepsy A disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities Sleep paralysis The experience of waking up unable to move Night Terrors Abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal Freudian model Activation-synthesis model 1. Spontaneous firing of neurons in pons 2. Cerebral cortex synthesizes signals, tries to interpret them ("I'm running through the woods") The Dreaming Brain Brain areas in red are activated during REM sleep
Brain areas in blue are deactivated Drugs Psychoactive drug A chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brain's chemical message system Drug Use and Abuse Drug tolerance The tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect Types of Psychoactive Drugs Depressants Expectancy theory The idea that alcohol effects can be produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations Alcohol myopia A condition that results when alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations Alcohol Barbiturates Stimulants substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels Benzodiazepines Toxic inhalants Seconal, Nembutal Valium, Xanax glue, gasoline, propane Caffeine Amphetamines Nicotine Cocaine Modafinil Ecstasy (MDMA) Narcotics highly addictive drugs derived from opium that relieve pain Hallucinogens drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations Opium, heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine, Demerol, Oxycontin LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, PCP, ketamine Marijuana the leaves and buds of the hemp plant Hypnosis create an altered state of creates an altered state of An altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that one's actions are occurring involuntarily can produce a state of is an altered state of Can lead to effects such as Postyhypnotic amnesia Hypnotic analgesia The failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget The reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible to hypnosis Consciousness may lead to is an example of Problem of other minds - The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1vkDfcg3L7pQg3JelJk5-BurHzPTMfO1_GPJDkc4x7Ag