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What is Psychology?

Chapter 1
by

Kristen Dodd

on 21 August 2013

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Transcript of What is Psychology?

Concerned with function and purpose of the mind
formed as a result of evolutionary psych
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBbUjqm-Tq0&feature=related
the goals of psychology
kind of work that psychologists do
brief history of psychology
a quick study of contemporary perspectives in the field of psychology
What is Psychology?
Chapter 1
Goals
of
Psychology
Observe
Describe
Explain
Predict
Control
cognitive activities
dreams
perceptions
thoughts
memories
Psychologists
v.
Psychiatrists
Theory
research about behavior and mental processes are organized into theories
a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do
Principle
is a rule or law
theories discuss principles that govern behavior and mental processes
PhD, Doctors of Psychology
A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy
MD
a person who specializes in psychiatry
branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders
Section 2: What Psychologists do
Section
1
Research Psychology
Appl
ied Psychology
those who
STUDY
the origins, causes, or results of certain behaviors
those who
USE
the information from to deal with the people and problems directly
What's new?
Mathematical psych: ex. uses calculus to develop models of complex behavioral phenomena
Psychopharmacology: understand the processes by which drugs affect behavior
Clinical neuropsychology: focuses on the biological bases of abnormal behavior
Section 3: A History of Psychology
History
of
Psychology
Ancient
Greece
Middle Ages
Modern Day
Wilhelm Wundt
Structuralism
William James
Functionalism
John B. Watson
Behaviorism
Socrates:
"Know thyself"
Introspection
Aristotle:
associationism
Physical and mental problems were signs of being possessed by demons!
Possessed or not?
Water float test: individuals who kept head above water were impure and possessed with the devil, those who sunk to the bottom were pure (both died!)
Psych Motto
we can learn about ourselves by carefully examining our thoughts & feelings
"looking within"
Hippocrates
, unlike the ancient Greeks (gods punished people for wrongdoing...thus'gave them bizzare behavior')
psychological problems are caused by abnormalities in the brain
heart of the Learning Perspective still today
experiences remind us of the past experiences--thus behave similiarly
EX. learn from our past experiences--dog and sister.
B.F. Skinner
Reinforcement
The Gestalt School
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis
Modern
Science
1600s--Locke, builds on associationism, behavior is learned
1800s--human behavior and mental processes (brain at work) should be supported by research (in labs!)
Father of Psychology
'Schools of Psychology'
1st lab
concerned with discovering the basic elements of consciousness
content of consciousness into 2 categories
objective sensations=sight, taste...(reflect outside world)
subjective feelings=emotions, mental images
introspection
mental processess help people adapt to their environment
behavior is learned & maintained if successful
studying, turning a doorknob, riding a bike
Section 4: Perspectives!
observable, measurable behavior
psych is the scientific study of observable behavior
learned behavior
good parenting is a must
!
added reinforcement to behaviorism
when an animal (a person) is reinforced for performing an action, then more than likely the animal will perform the behavior again, and again, and again...
emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives & internal conflicts in determining behavior
learning is active & purposeful
context influences your interpretation of info
organize perceptions into meaningful wholes not parts
Definition
Key Concepts
Biological
Evolutionary
Key Assumptions
Criticisms
Learning
Cognitive
Humanistic
Sociocultral
Biological processes influence behavior and mental processes
Nervous system
genetic factors
brain
chemicals, glands, hormones
mental processes--thoughts, dreams--are made possible by our nervous system
studies the influences of genes on personality traits, psychological health, behavior patterns, etc...
Charles Darwin
Physical traits
social behavior
evolution of behavior traits
inherited aspects of behavior
adaptive organisms survive & transmit their genes to future generations
focuses on evolution of behavior and mental processes
Interpretation of mental images
thinking
language
Piaget, Socrates
mental processes
choice
emphasizes how humans use mental processes to handle problems or develop certain personality characteristics
Perceptions, thoughts, values, & choices influence behavior
As humans, we take info from the environment, analyze it, and come up with a solution to any problem
computers
Rogers, Maslow
self-concept
Choice
growth is internal and individual
Personal experiences
People make free and conscious choices based on their unique experiences
Unconscious motives influence motives
early childhood experiences
Unconscious
Psychoanalytic
Freud, Neo-Freudians
behavior is influenced by unconscious forces
aggressive impulses are common reactions to frustrations of daily life..we seek to vent these impulses on other people!
Yet...we fear rejection SO we put aggression out of our mind, causing future explosions!
inner conflict
1st 5-6 years of your life
Personal experiences and reinforcement guide individual development
learning
taught behavior
observational learning
external influences
Watson, Skinner
rewards/reinforcements
Punishments
No Free will
no impluse
behavior is only because choice is made based on what has occurred to you up to present and it does not take into account what is happening in your life and it sees us as robots
we are the end result of all the different events/experiences we have been exposed to and the types of responses we made to them
Behavior is influenced by:
the rules and expectations of specific social groups and cultures
each child's culture influences how he/she spends time and plans for the future, what is learned, and so on...
gender
culture
ethnicity
socioeconomic status
traditions
sociocultural, biological & psychological factors create individual differences
Vygotsky
perfection
good
people are basically good, capable of helping themselves, & we could reach perfection if right path is chosen
not scientific, not addressing only observable behaviors
inner experiences cannot be scientifically analyzed
nobody is perfect!
too much brain!
where is the choice, experiences...
direct own growth
inner potential
problem solving
all about the genes!
where is the social influence?
emotions are down-played
so negative!
people are only products of their unconscious/impulses/past
no physiological influences on behavior
Edward Titchener: studied under Wundt
basis of other theories
basis of other theories
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