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Change and Continuity Timeline Ottoman Empire, Muslim Heartl

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on 27 February 2014

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Transcript of Change and Continuity Timeline Ottoman Empire, Muslim Heartl

The Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire initially began as vassals who served the Seljuks in northwestern Asia Minor, but by the end of the 12th century Osman I helped the empire gain their independence.
The Fall of Constantinople
In 1453 Sultan Mehmet II led his army and used advanced gunpowder artillery and captured Constantinople.
Selim i
Suleiman i
By 1529 Suleiman the Magnificent and the Ottomans resumed their assault against the Danube, Romania, Hungary, and the Holy Roman Empire, but they were stopped by the Christians when they reached the outskirts of Vienna.
Capturing Land
The Turks succeeded in capturing the Austrian Habsburgs capital of Vienna in 1638.
Rebellion and war caused turmoil and the empire began to lose territory. One century later the Italians took their last provinces. In 1918 the Empire collapsed during the World War and was replaced two years later by the modern Turks.
The Turks were left diminished by the treaties of Karlowitz (1699) and Passarowitz (1718).
Ottomans were given the right to rule lands from the Islamic world by the early 1500's.
Change and Continuity Timeline of the Ottoman Empire

Throughout the whole time period in which the Ottoman empire existed, men were only allowed to rule the empire, yet women could influence the ruler. For example, in the sultans harem, women close to sultan mght gain tremendous influence. In regards to the Queen mother, the mother of the sultan, she would arrange the marriages of her daughters to important figures and engaged in diplomatic relations with other countries.
Gender roles
The Sultans ruled the Ottoman Empire as absolute monarchs the empire was run day to day by the Grand Vizier, the Sultans chief minister. He had a bureaucracy staffed by Adjemi -oglans, who were part of the Janissary corps. In the provinces, local governors appointed by the Sultan or Grand Vizier were in control. As long as the tribute and taxes kept flowing back to the central government and the governors supplied military contingents for campaigns, these governors were left more or less to their own devices.
The Ottoman legal system accepted the religious law over its subjects. At the same time the Qanun (or Kanun), a secular legal system, co-existed with religious law. The Ottoman Empire was always organized around a system of local jurisprudence (the theory or philosophy of law.) Legal administration in the Ottoman Empire was part of a larger scheme of balancing central and local authority. Ottoman power revolved crucially around the administration of the rights to land, which gave a space for the local authority develop the needs of the local millet. The jurisdictional complexity of the Ottoman Empire was aimed to permit the integration of culturally and religiously different groups. Therefore the Ottoman system had three court systems: one for Muslims, one for non-Muslims, involving appointed Jews and Christians ruling over their respective religious communities.
The Ottoman economic mind was closely related to the basic concepts of state and society in the Middle East in which the ultimate goal of a state was consolidation and extension of the ruler's power, and the way to reach it was to get rich resources of revenues by making the productive classes prosperous.The ultimate aim was to increase the state revenues without damaging the prosperity of subjects to prevent the emergence of social disorder and to keep the traditional organization of the society intact
The Ottomans absorbed some of the traditions, art and institutions of cultures in the regions they conquered, and added new features to them. Numerous traditions and cultural traits of previous empires were adopted by the Ottoman Turks, who elaborated them into new forms, which resulted in a new and distinctively Ottoman cultural identity. Intercultural marriages also playeda part in creating the characteristic Ottoman elite culture. When compared to the Turkish folk culture, the influence of these new cultures in creating the culture of the Ottoman elite was clear.
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