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Transcript of Mumbai
Where in the world is Mumbai?
The absolute location of Mumbai is
19° 4' 21" N, 72° 52' 60" E
Mumbai is a city in the state of Maharashtra, on the west coast of India. It is next to the Arabian Sea and southwest of New Delhi. Mumbai is also north of the Western Ghats and west of the Deccan Plateau.
Mumbai is part of Bombay Island, which is really a conglomeration of several small islands that have gradually become incorporated into one. Even today, the city continues to expand onto these surrounding islands.
As a whole, Bombay Island is a relatively flat plain, its elevation at or below sea level (depending on the exact location).
Mumbai is surrounded on its east and west sides by "two parallel ridges of low hills."
The eastern hills terminate in a headland known as Colaba Point, which is located on the island's southern tip.
Continuing north from Colaba Point, one would first encounter Back Bay.
Next is Malabar Hill, one of the highest points on the island at 180 feet above sea level.
In the center of the island lies the central plain of Mumbai.
Many tropical plant species, such as "coconut palms, mango trees, tamarinds, and banyan trees," are native to Mumbai.
Other endemic species of animals, including tigers and leopards, have been replaced by farm animals such as sheep and goats.
For most of its long history, Mumbai was known as Bombay (from the Portuguese
, meaning Good Bay).
The city was largely controlled by the English in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries.
By the late 1700s, Bombay had become a prominent center of trade and was known as "The Gateway to India."
In the subsequent years, Bombay was further built up by the East India Company, which had been managing the city's affairs since the late 1600s.
In 1995, the city was renamed Mumbai. Today, it is the most densely populated city in the world and one of the most populous cities overall.
Culture in Mumbai Today
Today, Mumbai is an extremely diverse city, full of rich cultural traditions originating from many varied locations around the globe. Its official website describes it as "every Indian's urban dream," citing the "fast paced life" of city residents and the various festivals, art museums, and theaters located in Mumbai. As the hub of Bollywood, the Indian film industry, Mumbai boasts many cinematic opportunities as well. Ingrained in this culture is also a deep appreciation for education.
Mumbai is the capital of the state of Maharashtra.
Mumbai is also a major city in the region of India as a whole.
If Bombay Island can be considered a region, Mumbai is part of it as well.
Mumbai is characterized by its strong manufacturing industry, which could be viewed as evidence of its inclusion in a function region centered around manufacturing.
The same logic applies to the filmmaking industry (Bollywood) centered in Mumbai.
Mumbai is somewhat of a microcosm of India as a whole, with its striking contrast between the highly privileged and the impoverished.
Mumbai is part of a physical region characterized by a tropical climate.
Mumbai could be considered a part of many different cultural regions, due to its diverse population. Some of the more prominent cultures in the city are the Maharashtrian, Hindu, and even European cultures.
If one were to group locations with high population density into a region, Mumbai would fall into this category as well.
Many underprivileged people and unskilled workers migrate to Mumbai, seeking opportunity.
Many wealthy people move to Mumbai as well, since it is a national hub of economy and business.
The government has attempted to slow population growth by imposing restrictions on industrial development so as to discourage prospective workers from moving to the city, but these operations have been mostly unsuccessful.
In its early days, Mumbai traded primarily with England and was known for its cotton exports. The city is still an economic hub, but today it exports electronics, cars, and other similar products to many different countries in the world.
Early English settlers in Mumbai brought with them farm animals such as oxen, goats, and cows.
If Bollywood movies can be considered exports, then Mumbai "exports" these "products" as well.
The diverse population of Mumbai has brought with it many modern (and traditional) ideas from all areas of the world. (In fact, the city's official website emphasizes that its residents embrace a modern lifestyle.)
The Bollywood film industry has become an integral part of the city's culture, "exporting" ideas around the globe.
Many different ethnic groups living in Mumbai have brought new religious and cultural ideas, as well as local traditions. (The city's website points out various celebrations that take place throughout the year, from Christmas to Moharram.)
Natural Environmental Conditions
Residents of Mumbai are drenched by a monsoon every summer, which sometimes causes floods.
For the rest of the year, they must endure hot, humid weather.
The original settlers of Bombay were geographically disadvantaged, as the city was just one of several marshy islands. Movement between the islands was difficult, effectively isolating Bombay from the mainland.
English settlers on the island complained of the "unhealthy climate" and low life expectancy in Mumbai.
Since the expansion of the city is limited by its location on an island, the flood of people migrating to Mumbai just increase its population density.
High population densities, automobile exhaust, and waste from the many factories in Mumbai have contributed to extensive air and water pollution in the city.
The original construction of the city necessitated the removal of mangrove trees, disturbing the natural ecosystem.
Urbanization has led to the disappearance of various native species, such as jackals and leopards.
This process was initiated by early European settlers, who brought (non-native) farm animals to the island. The introduction of these species, as well as the rapidly changing environment, was a contributing factor in the gradual disappearance of native species.
On the island's northern reach is a large salt marsh.
By Mia Haraguchi