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Copy of Night by Elie Wiesel
Transcript of Copy of Night by Elie Wiesel
places mentioned in Night
Overview of Night
60 Second Recap
Oprah's Interview with Elie Wiesel at Auschwitz
The Rhetorical Triangle
ethos, logos, pathos
A memoir is not what happens, but the person to whom things happen. --Virginia Woolf
Logos appeals to reason. Logos can also be thought of as the text of the argument, as well as how well a writer has argued his/her point.
Ethos appeals to the writer’s character. Ethos can also be thought of as the role of the writer in the argument, and how credible his/her argument is.
Pathos appeals to the emotions and the sympathetic imagination, as well as to beliefs and values. Pathos can also be thought of as the role of the audience in the argument.
Logos, ethos, and pathos are important components of all writing whether we are aware of them or not. By learning to recognize logos, ethos, and pathos in the writing of others and in our own, we can create texts that appeal to readers on many different levels and recognize fallacies of other authors trying to unfairly persuade an audience.
Aristotle taught that a speaker’s ability to persuade an audience is based on how well the speaker appeals to that audience in three different areas:
Considered together, these appeals form what later rhetoricians have called the rhetorical triangle.
Memoirs are not personal narratives. Memoirs are not single moments. Memoirs are about the plot lines or patterns that bind those moments together.
Writing a memoir has everything to do with rendering the common day elements of our lives with vivid details and cohesive patterns so that it becomes significant.
Memoir is always double-edged. In memoir, the story is always being remembered by a writer who is now older and wiser. Because of this, the author might have a different perspective on the events and thus can identify a deeper meaning or moral from their experience.
In this light, memoir writing makes the past real and vivid and compelling, as if it happened yesterday. The smells, and sounds from other times are what make these stories rich and unforgettable.
the author's attitude toward the produced writing (i.e. characters, plot, etc.) and the audience reading.
the way feelings are expressed through descriptive language/word choice, details of setting and characters and situations, etc.
the atmosphere created by the author's tone
the feeling the audience experiences as the result of the author's tone
Fever Dream Activity
Fever Dream: n. a dream (sometimes a nightmare) which occurs during the REM sleep cycle and can be remembered vividly.
In your Writer's Notebook, create a timeline of your life.
Plot several major events (along with the setting: time/year and place) from your life on that timeline.
Examples: a time you were injured while playing a sport, a moment of realization, the time you wrote your first song, that one time you traveled for so long that it hurt to walk, a new experience (like camping, a visit to the beach), a scary moment, a beautiful moment, etc.
Choose one of those events. What has the most resonance to you? What section of your time line scares you? Motivates you? Do not choose archetypal moments like the day you got your driver’s license or a particular birthday party you had, because those events invite clichés.
Create a connotation map for the event. List descriptive words and images which portray what that event’s memory/experience was like for you.
When you are finished, write three questions about your writing to your reader:
Example: “Did I convey the emotion of happiness through my description of...?”
Give your Fever Dream to a peer to read. Your peer should then respond to the questions you developed.
When you get your writing back with the feedback from your peer, answer the following question:
how could you edit and/or revise this piece to make it “better”?
what do you want your audience to experience as they read your piece?
what was the purpose of your writing? What did it do for your audience (inform, persuade, narrate, describe, entertain)?
Example of Ethos
"I will end this war in Iraq responsibly, and finish the fight against al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan. I will rebuild our military to meet future conflicts. But I will also renew the tough, direct diplomacy that can prevent Iran from obtaining nuclear weapons and curb Russian aggression. I will build new partnerships to defeat the threats of the 21st century: terrorism and nuclear proliferation; poverty and genocide; climate change and disease. And I will restore our moral standing, so that America is once again that last, best hope for all who are called to the cause of freedom, who long for lives of peace, and who yearn for a better future."
Democratic Presidential Candidate Acceptance Speech by Barack Obama. August 28th, 2008.
Example of Pathos
"I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed."
I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr. August 28th, 1963.
Example of Logos
"However, although private final demand, output, and employment have indeed been growing for more than a year, the pace of that growth recently appears somewhat less vigorous than we expected. Notably, since stabilizing in mid-2009, real household spending in the United States has grown in the range of 1 to 2 percent at annual rates, a relatively modest pace. Households' caution is understandable. Importantly, the painfully slow recovery in the labor market has restrained growth in labor income, raised uncertainty about job security and prospects, and damped confidence. Also, although consumer credit shows some signs of thawing, responses to our Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey on Bank Lending Practices suggest that lending standards to households generally remain tight."
The Economic Outlook and Monetary Policy by Ben Bernanke. August 27th, 2010.
Can be defined as the systematic attempt to persuade a public to accept the views of its leaders (using primary sources).
Sometimes this is easy, sometimes difficult.
In practice, that means material that clearly encouraged people to follow the party line.
That does not mean other material was not propaganda, but material that meets the everyday definition of propaganda: moving the masses.
Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1932
Nazis organized violent propaganda against Jews
Nazis blamed Jews for having too much "negative" influence on the economy & culture:
finance, press, literature, theater, and the arts
hence Nazi Germany's "need" to take it all back for themselves
Physical features that Nazi's stereotyped and associated prejudices of Jews:
"hooked noses" & "dark hair"
to identify Jews, Nazis forced Jews to wear badges (star of David)
Germans "needed" ultimate power in order to take back absolute control for their failed economy
1934: campaign dooming Jews to extinction & glorifying German's destiny to rule reached its full potential
daily paper comics
Progression of Nazi Hate
removed from professions & public schools
confiscated businesses and property
excluded from public functions
In late 1938, these events became more violent
Riots: Kristallnacht (the night of broken glass)
Ghettos established for Polish Jews (Sept. 1940)
June 1941: "Final Solution" implemented: transportation of Jews from ghettos to concentration (slave labor) and/or death camps
F. M. Cornford’s: “Propaganda is the art of very nearly deceiving one’s friends without quite deceiving one’s enemies.”
Jacques Ellul, "Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes"
Propaganda is a set of methods employed by an organized group that wants to bring about the active or passive participation in its actions of a mass of individuals, psychologically unified through psychological manipulation and incorporated in an organization. (p. 61)
However, he insists that propaganda is not something done by evil propagandists to ignorant citizens.
factories of death
thousands shipped to them each day
gassed, then bodies were cremated
little to no food
terrible sanitation and living conditions
"holding cells" for camps
Camps were slowly liberated by Allied Forces. In 1945, all camps were liberated:
Soviets (who were formally Axis)
Ohrdruf, Germany (labor/concentration camp) was liberated on April 4, 1945, by the 4th Armored Division and the 89th Infantry Division. It was the first Nazi concentration camp liberated by the U.S. Army.
In late March 1945, the camp had a prisoner population of some 11,700, but in early April the SS evacuated almost all the prisoners on death marches to Buchenwald. The SS guards killed many of the remaining prisoners who were too ill to walk to the railcars
Why did the Germans use propaganda?
How were audiences called to action against Jews?
Why did Elie Wiesel compose the literary memoir, "Night"?
Pyramid of Hate
Have you ever...
Rhetorical Analysis & Case Studies
"We are on the threshold of a new century, a new millennium. What will the legacy of this vanishing century be? How will it be remembered in the new millennium? Surely it will be judged, and judged severely, in both moral and metaphysical terms. These failures have cast a dark shadow over humanity: two World Wars, countless civil wars, the senseless chain of assassinations -- Gandhi, the Kennedys, Martin Luther King, Sadat, Rabin -- bloodbaths in Cambodia and Nigeria, India and Pakistan, Ireland and Rwanda, Eritrea and Ethiopia, Sarajevo and Kosovo; the inhumanity in the gulag and the tragedy of Hiroshima. And, on a different level, of course, Auschwitz and Treblinka. So much violence, so much indifference."
Eli Wiesel, "The Perils of Indifference"
River Teeth: Stories and Writings
David James Duncan
Listen and read along as I read this story out loud to you. Note the following in your daybook:
What are some vivid images you see in your mind while listening/reading?
What examples of descriptive language contributes to this imagery?
What do you think the tone, mood, and purpose of this story is? Why does the author share this particular snapshot of his life with an audience?
What is your favorite part and why?
This is an example of memoir. List your predictions of what some characteristics of this genre may include:
1. (in writing or speech) the undue use of exaggeration or display; bombast.
2. the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech.
3. the study of the effective use of language.
4. the ability to use language effectively.
5. the art of prose in general as opposed to verse.
1. used for, belonging to, or concerned with mere style or effect.
2. marked by or tending to use bombast.
3. of, concerned with, or having the nature of rhetoric.
diction, syntax, structure, tone, mood
Author's word choice
descriptive language supports the creation of imagery
The order in which words are structured (in a phrase, sentence, paragraph...)
ex) helps readers understand dialogue between characters
Style (language + tone + mood) => supports meaning
Meaning => statements made by an author that reflects his/her beliefs. Meaning supports an author’s message & purpose.
Message: what the author is telling you, the audience/reader about the subject at hand
- not to be confused with a theme, which is an overarching, abstract idea that you build from concrete patterns.
Meaning => supports an author’s purpose
Why an author chooses to write: this can include several reasons:
to inform: state, teach, explain (example: brochures at museums)
to persuade: argue, convince, prove (example: infomercials)
to narrate: sequence, events, story (example: Harry Potter series)
to describe: paint a picture (example: poetry)
to entertain: amuse, joke, laugh (example: Shakespeare, movies)
We are working towards the understanding of how persuasive (e.g. rhetorical) techniques can be used by authors to convey certain messages and effect change in an audience (their beliefs, motivations, etc.).
"The Silence of the Bystander"
Poem by Elie Wiesel
Write your name at the top of the paper
Read and annotate the poem, then answer questions #1-4.
You may use the back of the paper to respond if you need more room.
Need Help Annotating?
Make a prediction
Ask a question
Make a comment
Make a connection
Since this happened...I bet _____ will happen...
What's this part about....Why did this happen....What would happen if....Who is...What does this word mean...I don't get this part here...
Oh, I get it...This makes sense now...This part is really saying...At first I thought this, but now I think that....
This is confusing because....This is hard/easy because....I like/don't like the part where...My favorite part was ____ because....
This reminds me of...This is similar/different to...I also have/never have had had this happen to me...