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Pornography and Sexual Harassment Online.

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Alejandra Urquijo

on 2 May 2016

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Transcript of Pornography and Sexual Harassment Online.

Gendertrolling: Misogyny Adapts to New Media
Karla Mantilla
Gendertrolling
- Understand the phenomenon of gendertrolling as a strategy to keep women from full participation on the internet

- Instead of just recommending individual strategies for women to withstand the onslaught, we can focus on strategies to address gendertrolling proactively, with the goal of preventing women, especially those who advocate for women's rights, from being bullied out of participating in yet another public forum.
Conclusions.
Recent cases.
Pornography and Sexual Harassment Online.
Felipe Isaza, Tatiana González, Alejandra Urquijo.
Recent Cases.
Conclusions.
Azy Barak - University of Haifa
Sexual Harassment on the Internet
Purpose:

Identify the distinct features of gendertrolling showing specific and recent examples from a range of internet communities.
What is Trolling?

" Disrupt[ing] a conversation or entire community by posting incendiary statements or stupid questions onto a discussion board... for [the troll's] own amusement, or because he or she was a genuinely quarrelsome, abrasive personality"

Whitney Phillips
- Gender trolling is not done only for the amusement of the trolls but it also often expresses sincere beliefs held by the trolls.

- Traditional trolls can represent depraved values and behavior and embody the worst of racist and homophobic behavior, what makes gender trolling distinct are the following features.
1.The participation, often coordinated,
of numerous people
2. Gender-based insults
3. Vicious language
4. Credible threats
5. Unusual intensity, scope, and longevity
of attacks.
6. Reaction to women speaking out.
Kathy Sierra
Technology Blogging
Melissa McEwan
Feminist Blogosphere
Rebecca Watson
"Elevatorgate" and the skeptical/atheist community
Anita Sarkeesian
Online and Video gaming community
Lindy West
Comedians and rape
jokes
Zerlina Maxwell
Political commentary
-Gender trolling has much in common with other offline targeting of women such as sexual harassment in the work place and street harassment.

-The harassment is about patrolling gender boundaries

-It is something above and beyond generic online trolling and a phenomenon that systematically targets women to prevent them from fully occupying public spaces.
Purpose --> to review the limited existing professional literature that refers to SH in cyberspace, to propose a typology—equivalent to that offline—of types of SH on the Internet, to analyze the dynamics of online SH, to review what is known about the effects of SH on the Internet, and to propose a comprehensive approach for preventing SH on the Internet.
Worldwide Phenomenon
Differences Between Offline and Online Sexual Harassment
Offline Sexual Harassment
Problem that exist in all cultures
Perception, judgment and definition changes from one culture to another (Barak, 1997).
III Types of SH
1. Gender Harassment
2. Unwanted Sexual Attention
3. Sexual Coercion
(Fitzgerald, Gelfand, & Drasgow, 1995).
Gender Harassment
Verbal and visual comments and remarks that insult individuals because of their gender or that use stimuli known or intended to provoke negative emotions.
Unwanted Sexual Attention
Uninvited behaviors that explicitly communicate sexual desires or intentions toward another individual.
Sexual Coercion
Involves putting physical or psychological pressure on a person to elicit sexual cooperation.
Sexual Harassment in Cyberspace
Gender Harassment
All three types of SH that exist offline also exist on the Internet (more
gender harassment
and
unwanted sexual attention
)
Verbal VS Graphical
Active VS Passive

appears in the form of offensive sexual messages, actively initiated by a harasser toward a victim
Practice in privet rooms and chat rooms and forums
In this category, the harasser does not target harassing messages directly to a particular person or persons but, rather, to potential receivers.
McCormick and Leonard (1996) contended that because of the Net’s so-called boys club atmosphere (apparently more relevant up to the mid-1990s than today), this environment is typically characterized by antiwomen attitudes and behaviors, including SH
"Mitchell, Finkelhor, and Wolak (2003) reported that 62% of the adolescents in their survey received unwanted sex-related e-mails to their personal address, 92% from unknown senders."
Scott, Semmens, and Willoughby (2001) pointed out how flaming—a common, online, aggressive verbal behavior that typically and frequently appears in online communities— particularly creates a hostile environment for women
Flaming is most initiated by men
POSSIBLE SOLUTION!
WOMEN-ONLY SANCTUARIES
UNWANTED SEXUAL ATTENTION
It can occur synchronously or asynchronously, verbal or non-verbal, implicit or explicit, direct and indirect, aggressive or moderate
"Perpetrators of these types of behavior look for sex contact; however, their basic motive might be to cause emotional harm and to abuse victims, not necessarily to gain sexual cooperation."
SEXUAL COERCION
"(...)online stalking (also termed cyberstalking), if it involves sexual insinuations and hints, should be considered a form of psychological pressure to achieve sexual gains—that is, a form of sexual coercion" (Adam, 2001; Deirmenjian, 1999; Griffith, Rogers, & Sparrow, 1998; Spitzberg & Hoobler, 2002).
Brides or Seduction
CAUSES AND PREVALENCE
Higher prevalence in women
"British survey that 41% of regular Internet female users had been sent unsolicited pornographic materials or been harassed or stalked on the Internet"
The Dynamics of SH on the Internet
Pryor and colleagues, it argues that SH behavior is determined by the interaction of a person’s and a situation’s characteristics.
Process occurs both online and offline harassment
The Penta-A Engine.
anonymity
availability
affordability
acceptability
aloneness.
(Barak & Fisher, 2002)
Promote Harassment Behaviors!
SIDE
People in cyberspace may incline under certain circumstances to follow group standards of behavior rather than using their own standards; in other words, a social or a group identity (and expressed norms of behavior) may replace an individual identity (Reicher, 1987).
CYBERSPACE ALLOWS REINFORCEMENT
Effects of SH on the Internet
"little is as yet empirically known about the effects of SH that is experienced on the Internet"
Offline SH impact:
1) school-related effects: reduced performance and satisfaction, decreased motivation and morale, lower productivity, and the like
2) psychological disorders: negative emotions, and related behavioral consequences.
Similar impact between offline and online SH
Prevention of SH on the Internet
Three parallel ways of preventing offline SH:

1. Legislation and law enforcement
2.Changing of the organizational-social culture, 3.Education and training of potential victims as well as of potential harassers
(cf. Paludi & Paludi, 2003; Sbraga & O’Donohue, 2000).
Combating SH
changing the culture and norms in which SH might take place
educating potential victims and harassers
For instance, the subject of SH on the Internet can be taught in schools in the framework of programs devoted to smart and safe Internet use (Dombrowski, LeMasney, Ahia, & Dickson, 2004; Oravec, 2000; Teicher, 1999).
ONLINE SH
CONCLUSIONS
SH exists on the Internet as much as it exists off the Internet
The special characteristics of the Internet, such as anonymity, make this medium more prone to provide the means needed for unlawful and unethical behaviors
Changing social norms and behavioral standards regarding the acceptance of and lenient attitudes toward SH will eventually influence many users and, consequently, affect the scope of SH.
Internet Pornography use: Perceived Addiction, Psychological Distress, and the Validation of a Brief Measure
Joshua B. Grubbs, Fred Volk, Julie J. Exline & Kenneth I. Pargament
Hypersexuality and Pornography
What is Pornography?
According to the Oxford dictionary, "is the printed or visual material containing explicit description or display of sexual organs, or activity, intended to stimulate sexual excitement"
What is Hypersexuality?
According to the DSM-V it is suggested as a psychiatric condition of an excess of sexual behavior including dysregulation
of sexual arousal and desire, sexual impulsivity, sexual addiction,
and sexual compulsivity.
Controversial Notion Porn Addiction
1. Lack of clear guidelines to define the problematic
2. Very few instruments that specifically assess the issue
CPUI (Cyber Pornography Use Inventory)
Asses internet porn using 3 domains:
1. addictive patterns related to IP
2. guilt regarding IP
3. social online sexual behavior
Problem of the CPUI
Problematic Use of Internet Pornography
Negative effects of IP
"Positive" effects
Some definitions of the problematic
Hypersexuality and IP addiction
Measurement of Perceived Internet Pornography Addiction

Study 1: SCALE REDUCTION AND PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS

Study 2: CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS IN A CROSS-SECTIONAL ADULT SAMPLE
Study 3: CONFIRMATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS IN A CLINICAL SAMPLE
Conclusions
Discussion
Minute 1:00 - 4:50
It is a 32 item inventory

Excessive use of Internet is associated with vocational problems, family dysfunctional, legal consequences, interpersonal isolation, and psychological distress
Casual use appears to be related to such things as
greater openness to experience and less sexual guilt
Cooper and colleagues (1999): use in excess of 11 hours per week
Grubbs et al.,(2010) Kwee, Dominguez, & Ferrell, (2007) Nelson, Padilla-Walker, & Carroll, 2010; Patterson & Price, (2012): view the problematic not in terms of time but for moral or religious reasons
Levin, Lillis, & Hayes, (2012); Stewart & Szymanski, (2012); Twohig et al., (2009): relational or vocational reasons
Consistent with the proposed diagnostic criteria for hypersexuality, individuals may feel that they are compulsive in their use of pornography (Doring, 2009; Pyle & Bridges, 2012), describe a perceived lack of control over their pornography use (Cavaglion, 2009; Egan & Parmar, 2013), report severe and diverse consequences associated with their pornography use, and still report an inability to regulate their use (Bhatia, 2008; Young, 2008).
The Internet Sex Screening Test (Delmonico & Miller, 2003)
Inventory of Problematic On- line Experiences (Mitchell, Sabina, Finkelhor, & Wells, 2009)
Pornography Consumption Inventory (Reid et al., 2010)
The CPUI was designed as a self-report measure of addiction to Internet pornography.
These three factors were made into subscales and labeled as follows: (a) addictive patterns (17 items), assessing perceived lack of control over use and compulsive behaviors related to Internet pornography use; (b) guilt regarding use (10 items), assessing moral-emotional reactions to and general distress regarding pornography use; and (c) social online sexual behavior (5 items), assessing non-pornography-related social sexual behaviors online.
Designed to provide data for an appropriate scale reduction, initial validity testing, and the examination of correlates with psychological distress in a population of college students
Method
Students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at a private, mid-sized university in the Midwest.
Initial sample of 532 individuals (301 men, 231 women)
Final sample 269 (227 men, 42 women)
Measures
IP use: indicate with what frequency they used pornography online within the past month.
Individual differences: To account for meaningful differences related to self-reported pornography addiction, we used multiple scales
Neuroticism: Big Five Inventory-44 (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1994)
Self-control: Self-Control Scale (Tangney & Baumeister, 2004)
Social Desirability: Marlowe-Crowne Scale of Socially Desirable Responding (Reynolds, 1982)
Psychological Distress
Depression: 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (Andresen, Malmgren, Carter, & Patrick, 1994)
Anxiety: short form of the State Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lucene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983)
Stress: Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, Kamarck, & Mermelstein, 1983)

Results
Initial factor analysis revealed that the CPUI could be effectively reduced to a three-factor brief inventory, as hypothesized.
The three factors that emerged were: perceived compulsivity, access efforts, and emotional distress
CPUI-9
Suggest that individuals who perceive themselves as being more addicted to Internet pornography are likely to exhibit subjective psychological distress.
Examine the performance of the CPUI in a cross-sectional adult sample, to confirm its structure
Test the relation between perceived addiction to Internet pornography and psychological distress
Examine the relation between Internet pornography addiction specifically and the broader construct of hypersexuality
Method
Participants: adults recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk worker database
Initial sample: 614 respondents
Final sample: 214 (136 men, 74 women, 3 transgender, 1 unreported)
Measures
Pornography use and perceived addiction: The nine items of the CPUI-9 and questions detailing their use of Internet pornography.
Hypersexualtiy: Kalichman Sexual Compulsivity Scale (K-SCS; Kalichman & Rompa, 1995)
Individual differences: Brief Self-Control Scale and the Marlow-Crowne Scale of Socially Desirable Responding
Psychological distress: The Symptom Checklist 10-Revised was included (Rosen et al., 2000)
Results
Strongly support the factor structure of the CPUI-9
A three-factor structure consisting of perceived compulsivity, access efforts, and emotional distress was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis
Individual’s perceptions of personal use is highly a relevant consideration, whereas simply assessing the time spent viewing pornography may not be sufficient
CPUI-9 was strongly positively associated with general hypersexual tendencies, as measured by the K-SCS
Confirm the proposed factor structure in a clinical sample and to establish whether a brief screening version of the CPUI-9 would demonstrate acceptable psychometric qualities
Further substantiate the relation between perceived addiction to Internet pornography and hypersexuality.
Method
Participants: students at a mid-sized university in the southeastern United States seeking therapy at the university’s counseling center for a full range of psychological complaints
Sample: 152 (103 men, 49 women)
Measures
Internet Pornography Use: CUIP-9
Hypersexuality: K-SCS
Results
The factor structure of the CPUI-9 is robust
The utility of a brief screening version of the CPUI-9 for situations in which brevity is a necessity
Indicate that the scale is useful in clinical settings.
The correlations between the CPUI-9 and the established K-SCS
The CPUI-9
CPUI-9 and Psychological Distress
CPUI-9 and Individual Differences
Limitations
Final Conclusions

Internet pornography use is a growing phenomenon that is likely to have diverse effects in various domains
A brief, nine-item measure known as the CPUI-9 is a psychometrically sound instrument for the assessment of problematic pornography use and perceived addiction to Internet pornography
Online porn vs. Offline porn
Full transcript