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The Meiji Reform

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on 11 April 2016

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Transcript of The Meiji Reform

Answer the Questions after watching the documentary
1. List the contents of the Meiji Reform according to the documentary.
The Resolution to Reform Japan
Contents of the Reform
Social and Cultural Reform
"Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world"
Meiji Restoration/Reform
2. What makes the Meiji Reform a successful reform, according to the documentary?
3. What are the major characteristics of a modern nation? How to maintain national traditions during the modernization?
Slogan and Oath
Mission and Embassy
Oversea Students
Foreign Experts in Japan
Political Reform
Contents of the Reform
Military Reform
Education Reform
Contents of the Reform
Slogan: Enrich the country, Strengthen the Military
Charter Oath:
Iwakura Mission:
On December 23, 1871, 48 Japanese administrators and 60 students set out on a global mission to visit the West. The Mission lasted for almost two years.
Students were already sent aboard before 1868.
Between 1868 and 1872, about 520 students were sent to the West.
A large group of foreign experts were employed to transplant western civilization and industrialization to Japan:
1. Abolish the feudal system, establish prefectures which were directly administrated by government officials, thus set up a centralized government;
2. Between 1868 and 1889, an oligarchy government was established, ministers rule in the name of the emperor;
3. In 1889, the Meiji Constitution, modeled on the German one, was proclaimed. (constitutional monarchy)
1. In 1872, the Japanese people were told that they were no longer to wear Japanese robes but western suit instead;
2. In 1873, Japan adopted the western calendar;
3. Gas light was introduced into the cities in 1872, electricity was adopted in 1887;
4. The feudal social hierarchy was abolished; The privileges for certain classes (samurai) were rescinded. Samurai were no longer allowed to carry swords.
1. Ministry of Education was founded in 1871, followed by a 6 years' education compulsory for all children in 1872.
4. Besides western learning, traditional Japanese skills and beliefs were taught.
3. Women were encouraged to go to school as well.
2. Universities were established in 1877 to reduce the number of oversea students.
1. Samurai was no longer needed to defend the nation. A new imperial army was created to replace samurai.
2. A universal conscription law was passed in 1873, every man had to join the army on turning 21.
3. Imperial Navy was created in the British model: British warship was introduced and officers were trained in Britain.
railway and Resources
1. Public-financed coal mines, shipyards and textile mills were opened, under the supervision of foreign experts;
2. Industrial zones grew and huge numbers of people moved to cities;
3. Private companies and investors were supported by the government, and in 1880s most state-own factories were sold to zaibatsu, the powerful and rich private companies.
centralized government and constitution
Factory system
Public education system
Meiji Reform by 1890
Japan had 500,000 well-trained army and a large fleet of warships;
Assuring that foreigners would be fairly treated in Japan, the West approved the abolition of extraterritoriality in 1894;
In the 1890s the Japanese embarked on the project of building an empire;
Full transcript