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The Elements & Principles of Art

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Tabitha Eller

on 3 February 2016

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Transcript of The Elements & Principles of Art

The Elements of Art
&
Principles of Design

Elements
:
Composition's
individual visual
parts
Tangible
parts of a visual image
Principles
:
Composition's
organizing ideas
Intangible
blueprints for
arranging & creating elements
These tools help you communicate an
idea, an emotion or an experience
to the viewer
Elements of Art vs. Principles of Design
©Jason Lee
A mark with
length
and
direction
Actual
or
implied
Thick, thin, curved, vertical, horizontal or a combination of these characteristics
Pathways
and
direction
that lead the viewer's eye through the art work
LINE
An
enclosed area
defined by other elements of art
Flat
and two-dimensional (
2-D
)
Geometric
shapes can be measured mathematically
Organic
shapes are natural and have flowing curves and outlines
SHAPE
Appears to enclose
volume
; such as a
sphere
,
cone
or
cube
Three-dimensional (
3-D
)
FORM
Reflected
or
refracted
light; created when
light
reflects off an object and hits a persons eye
Hue
: name of a color, related to the spectrum of colors found in white light
Value
: the lightness or darkness of a color
Chroma
: the intensity or dullness of a color
COLOR
The range of
lightness
and
darkness
Value gives the viewer an idea about the
shape
and
form
of objects in the art work
HIGHLIGHTS: the
whitest, whites
SHADOWS: the
blackest, blacks
You always need the
blackest black & whitest white!!!
VALUE
©Joe McNally
indicates areas
between
, around,
above
,
below
, or
within
something and the
illusion
of
3D
on a
2D
surface
It can be
positive
or
negative
Positive=the subject of the artwork
Negative=the empty space in the artwork
SPACE
The
surface quality
of an object or the way something LOOKS or FEELS
Can be
actual
or
implied
For example: a
3-D sculpture
of a goat with hair versus a
2-D photo
graph of a sculpture made of goat hair
Texture makes the objects in an artwork look real and suggest its three dimensionality, rather than the two-dimensional object that it is in the photograph
TEXTURE
More abstract than the elements of art
Ideas that help to organize the elements into successful compositions
The Principles of Design
Elements repeated in an organized way to create a design
Repeating lines=stripes
Repeating circles=polka dots
The KEY to pattern is REPETITION
PATTERN
©Rebecca Blackwell
©Kyle Green
The arrangement of visual objects to create stability.
There are three kinds of balance:
radial: circular style of composition, objects radiate from a central point in the image; it is dynamic and energetic
symmetrical: (formal) mirror image composition, what is on one side is on the other, objects usually in the middle
asymmetrical: (informal) still looks balance, but objects are not centered in the frame; rule of thirds
BALANCE
Based on the Greek ideal of the Golden Mean
The composition is split into three equal parts both horizontally and vertically
When objects appear at the intersections of the vertical and horizontal lines, the image can be balanced and looks naturally pleasing to the eye
Horizons look better on a third than in the middle
Creates a sense of movement and direction
"best seller"
RULE OF THIRDS
©Henri Cartier-Bresson
Unity: where all parts of a composition come together and support each other to make one, unified image
a sense of wholeness in a work
Must relate to each other through subject matter, appearance, size, shape, texture or color
TOO MUCH UNITY CAN BE BORING

Variety: the diversity of art elements and design principles found in a composition
Opposite of unity
Everything screams for our attention but nothing captures it
TOO MUCH CAN BE CHAOTIC
UNITY & VARIETY
Movement: gives the feeling of motion and guides the viewer's eye through the artwork
Movement can be actual or implied
Implied: the illusion of movement on a flat surface
Actual: designed to hold kinetic energy

Rhythm: the appearance of movement in an artwork, through repetition (or pattern), alteration, or progression of an element
MOVEMENT & RHYTHM
"There is nothing worse than a brilliant image of a fuzzy concept.” -Ansel Adams.

YOU MUST ALWAYS KNOW WHAT YOUR PICTURE IS ABOUT!
Emphasis: one element or combination of elements is used to create more attention than anything else.
Refers to dominance and subordination--you give some objects more dominance than you do others, therefore the others are subordinates
How else can you give something emphasis?

EMPHASIS
© Stephen Mitchell
© The Denver Post
©Stephen Mitchell
Comparative size relationships among several objects or between several parts or portions of a whole
Artists use proportion in sighting to measure objects
Helps indicate distance and location
If the object is closer to the camera, it will be larger than the objects in the background
Foreground: objects largest
Middle ground: object smaller than the foreground, but not small
Background: objects are smallest in relationship to the rest of the image
PROPORTION
TINT =
white + color
SHADE =
black + color

The opposition of elements (value, color, shape, etc.) to intensify each element’s property to create a dynamic effect.

CONTRAST
center focal point :(
Full transcript