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Copy of Social influences
Transcript of Copy of Social influences
2) Self-presentation - people vary in the degree to w/c they want to be seen as distinct & seperate from others.
3) Status - higher status people tend to have more impact than lower status.
4) Need for Individuation - desire to maintain one's uniqueness or individuality
5) Desire for Personal Control - ("theory of psychological reactance") people's behavioral freedoms & they will react against and resist attempt to limit this sense of freedom. SOCIAL INFLUENCE > Explores how people are affected by the real or imagined pressure of other individuals or group (Myers, 2005). WHAT IS IT? Collective A collective is a gathering of people who are motivated by at least one issue or interest and usually have minimal direct interactions. Status vs Power Status is the height of your importance in a group whereas power is how much control you have on other’s thoughts, feelings and behaviours. media Roles Obedience a change in behavior that is due to the commands of others in authority Groups Peer Pressure We all have a role assigned to us.
Son expectations attitude Power With each social role we play our behaviour changes to fit the expectations of other members of the group.
These expectations is set up by the presence of others and cause expected behaviours called norms. A part/behaviour adopted by an individual that is driven by expectations of how to behave in particular situations. norms Risk taking Conformity Obedience Yielding to group pressure in terms of changing or adjusting thoughts, feelings or behaviour. This change can be explained in terms of real (physical presence of others) or imagined (social norms/ expectations). Factors that can affect or influence conformity are: 3) Cohesion - "we feeling"; members of a group are bound together. when we want to be part of a group we tend to conform to its ideas and opinions even if we have different personal views. 4) Public Response - people conform more when they must respond in front of others rather than in private. 1. Group size: the number of people in a group can influences conformity in an individual. Conformity can increase with group size. 2) Change in Unanimity: whether everyone is of one mind or not and whether they all agree to what the answer is. 5) No Prior Commitmment - once people commit themselves to a position, they seldom yield to social pressure. Why do people obey??? 1) Authority: individuals perceived to be powerful and have a high status
2) Personal responsibility: acting on behalf of somebody else and hence not directly responsible for their actions
3) Social proximity: closeness between individuals and the presence of an authorative figure.
4) Group pressure: obedience level decreases when there is group support to resist the authority. Two levels of operation:
* Agentic: working on behalf of someone else or following instructions
* Autonomous: acting according to own values and beliefs. Cliques authority To be influenced to do or be part of something we normally would not do, for the sake of being accepted or stay as a part of a group. Peer pressure can show itself in lots of ways including:
* Dressing in a certain way
* Getting involved in particular activities
* Listening to particular music
* Decisions about using drugs and alcohol
* Decisions about who we date
* Our attitudes and perceptions
* Choice about who we’re friends with
* Academic performance
* Relationships with family/ parents compliance Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests or made by another. (Brehm & Kassim, 1996) 1. Expert Power (knwledgable, skillful, talented) 2) Legitimate Power
(position) 3) Referent Power
(liked and respected) 4) Reward Power
(access to one/more
desired reward) 5) Coercive Power
(punishment) Who are your peers? Peers are people our age or close to it who have experiences and interests similar to us. why do we conform? To be liked, to be right & to clarify friendship groups The tendency to engage in behaviours that can be harmful or dangerous, but can provide the opportunity for some kind of positive outcome. * To learn about our own capabilities
* To Discover the joy of new experiences
* Peer pressure
* Stress management
* Ignorance > Risk taking behaviour rises until age 50
> Men are slightly more of a risk taker than women But power without status corrupts absolutely... all power tends to corrupt... interaction status hierarchies THE END!!!!!! by:
Ladines > Process whereby attitudes & behavior are influenced by the real / implied presence of other people. (Hogg & Vaughan, 1998) consist of two or more member, who interact,
communicate, influence each other and have same goal. Individuals or groups may influence the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of others via: CONFORMITY, COMPLIANCE, and OBEDIENCE A change in behavior or belief in a group's standard that is a result of group's power.
(Worchel, et al 2000) Situational (5)
Cultural (2) Asch's Conformity Procedure Personal factors Cultural Factors 1) Individualism vs Collectivism
2.) Minority Influence Individualism - self-reliance,
independence, & autonomy, Minority Influence - case where minority of group members influences the behavior or beliefs of the majority Reasons of Compliance 1) Mindlessness - responding to a request w/0 any good reason for it, or performing behaviors w/o thinking about them
2) Bases of Social Power (6) 6) Information Power
(persuasion) Strategies 1) Ingratiation 2) Reciprocity Principle 3) Multiple Requests a) Foot-in-the-Door Technique
-if someone will agree to a small request,
the individual somehow will be more likely
to agree to a large request b) Low-Ball Technique - the moment an
individual is committed to an action, he
is more likely to accept a slight increase
in the cost of the action c) Door-in-the-Face - a person will ask for
a large favor, when it is turned down, the
person then would ask for a second , which
is smaller favor d) That's not all Technique - infuencer begins with an inflated request, then decreases it's apparent size by offering a discount or a bonus e) Even-a-penny-will-help - maximizes the probabilities of accepting a contribution while leaving unaffected the magnitude of contribution f) Inducing guilt Technique - making individuals feel guilty increases compliance g) Touching Technique h) Imagine-that-you're-doing-me-a-favor i) Suggesting Atrributions Technique j) Making-it-a-game Hogg & Vaughan, 1988 Yukl & Falbe Tactics 1) Pressure Tactics - "If you don't complete the report, you'll be fired" 2) Upward Appeals - "This request comes straight from hte director himself" 3) Exchange Tactics - " If you do a good job on this, you'll be in line for the promotion" 4) Coalition Tactics - "Ask Arnold to agree to this. will you?" 5) Ingratiating Tactics - "You really did a great job on that last task force. That's why I'd like you to be on the new one" 6) Rational Persuation - "You're knowledge of computers will raise productivity for the entire organization." 7) Inspirational Appeals - "You're the only one who can do the job right." 8) Consultation Tactics - "How can we introduce this new policy so people will accept it." Thanks!