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class 2C

Luisella Ciambezi

on 1 April 2015

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Transcript of Rome

Spanish square
Piazza di Spagna ( spanish square) is connected to Trinità dei Monti, a frech church situated on a hill, via a long a staircase, the scalinata della Trinità dei Monti , better know as Spain steps.
The idea of connecting the church with a square below originates from the seventeenth century, and that idea has been realized thanks to a designe of the italian architect name named Francisco the Santics.

The elegant staircase consist in 137 steps over twelve
different flights. It has an irregular albeit symmetric structure. It is especially beautiful May, when it is decorated with a flowering azaleas.
In front of the Spanish Steps the
Fontana della Barcaccia
a fountain commissioned by pope Urban VIII and designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
Bernini's design,which shows a flooded boat at the center of a basin, was inspired by the flooding of the Tiber in 1598, when a small boat stranded here after the water subsided.
The most glamorous Rome streets lead to Spanish square.
The area around the Spanish Square is where to find the most prestigious boutiques such as Prada, Valentino, Gucci etc. It as ideal strarting point of your shopping in Rome.
Piazza Navona, which is a pedestrian area now, has 3 baroque fountains and the central one (Fountain of Four Rivers) designed by Bernini.
Opposite to the piazza Navona fountain, we can find Sant' Agnese in Agone Church, which facade (by Borromini) is one of the most famous baroque masterpieces of Rome.
Possibly the square that better represents the 'bombastic' Baroque Epoch in Rome.
Fountain of Four Rivers, Piazza Navona It was built exactly at the same place where the Domiziano Stadium was located, in 86 bc (the Roman ruins are still visible in the crypt of Sant' Agnese in Agone Church).
The Fountain of the Four Rivers depicts Gods of the four great rivers in the four continents as then recognized by the Renaissance geographers: the Nile in Africa, the Ganges in Asia, the Danube in Europe and the Río de la Plata in America.
Each location is further enhanced by animals and plants of that country.
THE ARA PACIS AUGUSTAE (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax,it was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honor the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul
the monuments consists of a traditional open-air altar at its center surrounded by precinct walls which are pierced on the eastern and western ends by openings.
the precinct walls composed of two tiers of friezes
On the north and south, the upper register depicts the procession of members of the Imperial household and the larger regime,while on the east and west, panels depict allegorical themes of peace and Roman civic ritual.
The lower register of the frieze depicts vegetal work meant to communicate the abundance and prosperity of the Pax Augusta.
The monument as a whole serves a civic ritual function whilst simultaneous operating as propaganda for Augustus and his regime
The Pincio Gardens
The Trevi Fountain is situated at the end of the Aqua Virgo, an aqueduct constructed in 19 BC by Agrippa, the son-in-law of Emperor Augustus.
The Trevi fountain, inspired by Roman triumphal arches, is the largest and most famous Baroque fountain in Rome (standing 25.9 meters high and 19.8 meters wide).
St. John in
The basilica of Saint John Lateran was built under pope Melchiade, it's the most ancient church in the world.
Due to the fact that the pope is also the bishop of Rome, Saint John in Lateran is also Rome's Cathedral.
The present structure of the basilica resembles the Saint Peter's Basilica
The colossal eastern facade of St. John Lateran is probably the most recognizable part of this important basilica.
It is topped with fifteen large travertine statues, each seven meters tall. The central figure is Jesus, flanked by John the Baptist and John the Evangelist. The other statues represent Fathers of the Church.

The basilica has five naves divided by massive columns that support large arches. The twelve niches that Barromini created in the columns of the main nave hold colossal marble statues of the Apostles. They were designed by a variety of prominent Rococo and Baroque sculptors.
One of the artistical highlights inside the church is a fragment of a fourteenth-century fresco of pope Boniface VIII on the back of the first column on the right. The fresco was created by Giotto and shows the pope proclaiming the first Holy Year in 1300.

The altar in the middle of the transept can only be used by the pope or his proxy.
The altar, created by Giovanni di Stefano incorporates parts of a wooden altar that is aid to have been used by St. Peter when he celebrated the Eucharist in the house of the Roman senator Pudens.The magnificent Gothic baldachin over the altar is decorated with frescoes created by Barna da Siena.
There are six more papal tombs inside St. John Lateran. They contain the remains of Silvester II, Sergius IV, Alexander III, Innocent III, Clement XII and Leo XIII.
The apse is decorated with large mosaics. According to legend the bust of Jesus appeared on the day the basilica was dedicated and people believed it had been painted by angels.
It is thought that the bust dates back to the fifth, possibly fourth century and it might even be the oldest representation of Christ.
The Colosseum is probably the most impressive building of the Roman Empire. The Roman Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, was commisioned in AD 72 by Emperor Vespasian. It was completed by his son, Titus, in 80, with later improvements by Domitian.
The Colosseum is located just east of the Roman Forum and was built to a practical design, with its 80 arched entrances allowing easy access to 55,000 spectators, who were seated according to rank. The Coliseum is huge, an ellipse 188m long and 156 wide. Originally 240 masts were attached to stone corbels on the 4th level.
The Colosseum was covered with an enormous awning known as the velarium. This protected the spectators from the sun.
Emperors used the Colosseum to entertain the public with free games. They usually started with comical acts and displays of exotic animals and ended with fights to the death between animals and gladiators or between gladiators. These fighters were usually slaves, prisoners of war or condemned criminals.
The southern side of the Colosseum was felled by an earthquake in 847. Parts of the building were later used for the St. Peter's Basilica and Palazzo Farnese.
Basilica of St. Mary of the Angels and Martyrs was born from the settlement in 1562 , the work of Michelangelo Buonarroti, for the disposal of Pope Pius IV at the request of the Sicilian priest Antonio del Duca, uncle of Michelangelo, Jacopo del Duca .
The Trevi Fountain is situated at the end of the Aqua Virgo, an aqueduct constructed in 19 BC by Agrippa, the son-in-law of Emperor Augustus.
The Trevi fountain, inspired by Roman triumphal arches, is the largest and most famous Baroque fountain in Rome (standing 25.9 meters high and 19.8 meters wide).
The Pincio Gardens actually date back to the antiquity. The name of the park comes from the former villa of the Pincii family, who lived here in the fourth century. Later the hill was used as the vineyard of the monastery of Santa Maria Del Popolo.
What you'll see when you visit them today is a more modern nineteenth-century version, separated from the nearby Villa Borghese gardens by the ancient Aurelian Wall. Italian architect Giuseppe Valadier laid out the gardens from 1810 until 1818 in a classical style; a style more formal than the traditional terraced gardens of Rome.

Already in the fifteenth century a small Trevi Fountain was built here during the papacy of Nicholas V. In 1732, pope Clement XII commissioned Nicola Salvi to create a large fountain at the Trevi Square to replace the existing fountain. A previous undertaking to build the fountain after a design by Bernini was halted a century earlier after the death of pope Urban VIII. Salvi based his theatrical masterpiece on this design. He never saw his monumental Baroque fountain completed. The Trevi Fountain was only inaugurated in 1762, eleven years after Salvi had passed away.

The central figure of the fountain, standing in a large niche, is Neptune, god of the sea. He rides a shell-shaped chariot that is pulled by two sea horses. Each sea horse is guided by a Triton. One of the horses is calm and obedient, the other one restive. They symbolize the fluctuating moods of the sea. The statues were sculpted by Pietro Bracci.

On the left hand side of Neptune is a statue representing Abundance, the statue on the right represents Salubrity. Both these statues were the work of Filippo della Valle.
Above the two allegorical statues are bas-reliefs. The one on the left shows Agrippa, the general who built the aqueduct that carries water to the fountain. Attic of the Trevi Fountain in Rome
Attic of the Trevi Fountain
He is shown explaining his plan for the aqueduct to Augustus. The bas-relief on the right captures the moment the virgin points to the source of the spring. The allegorical statues on the top, in front of the attic, symbolize the four seasons. Crowning the top is the coat of arms of pope Clement XII.

Tradition has it that you will return to Rome if you throw a coin into the fountain's water basin. You should toss it with your right hand over your left shoulder (or left hand over your right shoulder) with your back to the fountain. You're not allowed to look behind you while you're tossing the coin but the fountain is so large it's basically impossible to miss.

The Trevi Fountain is situated at the end of the Aqua Virgo, an aqueduct constructed in 19 BC by Agrippa, the son-in-law of Emperor Augustus.
The Trevi fountain, inspired by Roman triumphal arches, is the largest and most famous Baroque fountain in Rome (standing 25.9 meters high and 19.8 meters wide).
Altare Della Patria
The Basilica of Saint Mary of the Angels and Martyrs at the Diocletian Baths is the last great architectural project from the genius of Michelangelo. It is a monument to history, to faith, to art and to science.
The Altare della Patria also known as the Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II or "Il Vittoriano" is a monument built in honour of Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy. It occupies a site between the Piazza Venezia and the Capitoline Hill.
The eclectic structure was designed by Giuseppe Sacconi in 1885; sculpture for it was parceled out to established sculptors all over Italy, such as Leonardo Bistolfi and Angelo Zanelli. It was inaugurated in 1911 and completed in 1925.
The Vittoriano features stairways, Corinthian columns, fountains, an equestrian sculpture of Victor Emmanuel and two statues of the goddess Victoria riding on quadrigas. The structure is 135 m (443 ft) wide and 70 m (230 ft) high. If the quadrigae and winged victories are included, the height is to 81 m (266 ft). It has a total area of 17,000 square meters.

The height of the statue is 12 meters and the length of 10; to achieve it were cast 50 tons of bronze. On the base are statues of fourteen cities nobles, who were that capital were noble Italian in various periods of history. It is not therefore the statues of the major cities of Italy, but of those once home to the noble governments, considered antecedents and converging in the Savoy monarchy; for this reason they are placed at the base of the equestrian monument to Vittorio Emanuele. Unlike those representing the regions, are all works of the same sculptor: Eugenio Maccagnani.
Trajan column
The Column of Trajan was erected in 113 AD in honor of Emperor Trajan. It was located at the then just completed Forum of Trajan and was hemmed in by buildings. The column commemorates Trajan's victories in Dacia.
The column including its base is forty-two meters tall. This was exactly the height of the hill that stood at this site. It had been leveled to create open space for the construction of Trajan's Forum.

There are more than two thousand carved figures on the column that depict the story of Trajan's Dacian war campaigns conducted. The width of the band varies from 60cm at the bottom to 120cm at the top so that the carved figures would seem to have an equal height when seen from the ground.
Initially, a statue of an eagle topped the column, but after Trajan's death it was replaced by a six meter tall statue of the emperor himself. His ashes and later those of his wife Plotina were placed in the base of the column. In 1587 the statue was replaced again, this time by one of St. Peter.
The legend also claims that Trajan's tongue was still intact when his ashes were excavated. The tongue told about his rescue from hell. The area around the column was then declared sacred, thus saving the column from demolition

The column consists of twenty-nine pieces of white marble, the largest one weighing up to seventy-seven tons. A band of beautifully carved reliefs winds around the column. The band is more than 180 meters long.
In the park you can also find an obelisk, which is situated in the center of the gardens, it's an early Roman copy, commissioned in the second century by the Emperor Hadrian as a tribute to his dead favorite friend and lover Antinoüs. The obelisk was probably erected at Hadrian's villa in Tivoli. Pope Pius VII placed it here in the gardens later.
To the right of the line are shown the signs of the zodiac constellations summer and autumn
Another particular attraction is a unique water clock built by a dominican, father Giovanni Embriaco. The water clock was one of the attractions at the Paris Universal Expo. In 1872 another model of Embracio's water clock was installed in the Pincio Garden
Bernini's little elephant
It is a small, marble elephant which stands on a high base
Probably the greatest thing about visiting Pincio Gardens, however, is the panoramic view of the city it provides from the balustraded Pincio Terrace at the Piazzale Napoleone I as it stretches out over the Piazza Del Popolo.
the bath were constructed,generally speaking beginning with the las year of the first century after Christ
Capuchin Crypt
The Capuchin Crypt was built between 1731 and 1775. Six rooms hold the bones of over 3700 Capuchin as well as Romans, including children, dead during the plague period.
The crypt and the church (Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini) were estabilished here in 1631 while Barberini was building his own family palace.
The crypt was also defined "memento mori" ("remember you will die") or rather "monument of funerary art" and also includes a number of burials from the 19th century.
The last room in the series strikes a more hopeful note, embracing the theme of resurrection and is also a silent remember of the passage of life on earth and our own mortality.
There are a total of six rooms in the crypt (five featuring a display of humans bones taken from the bodies of friars who had died between 1528 and 1870):
- The Crypt of the Resurrection
- The Mass Chapel
- Crypt of the Skulls
- Crypt of the Pelvises
- Crypt of the Leg Bones
- Crypt of the Three Skeletons
The crypt is also described as one of the most terrifying images in all of the Christendom.
The elephant is supporting an obelisk which was once in an Egyptian temple
This kind of building complex was comprised not only for thermal bathing system but also and above all of gymnastic. Facilities in the Greek tradition. There one was able to enjoy lectures as well as gymnastic games in the garden and exercise room.
The monument was made for Alexander VII Chigi and it was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, although it was sculpted by Ercole Ferrata in 1667 at the request of the Chigi pope.This is one of Bernini's most famous and well-known works, but it seems that he himself cared little for it. He did not include it on a list of his works which he drew up near the end of his career. The fact is that as he grew older, Bernini became more and more critical of his own works. He even came to be dissatisfied with the famous Fountain of the Four Rivers in Piazza Navona, created by him about ten years before the elephant.
Like the elephant, the Fountain Of The Four Rivers in Piazza Navona also features an Egyptian obelisk.

The bath which Maximian Valerio Augusto had in mind to dedicatet to his noble colleague Diocletian were to be more magnificent
St. Peter's Square
Basilica of Saint Mary of the Angels and Martyrs
The Basilica of Saint Mary of the Angels and Martyrs at the Diocletian Baths is the last great architectural project from the genius of Michelangelo. It is a monument to history, to faith, to art and to science.
The Meridian line
On the floor of the cruise of St. Mary of the Angels you see the Meridian line or Line Clementina. The Meridian was built with scientific accuracy and opened on October 6, 1702; is a large bronze line inserted in a band of marble, in turn surrounded by a frame of yellow Verona, lying almost diagonally to about 45 meters when considering how virtual point of departure the one on which falls the perpendicular from the center of the gnomonic hole.
To the right of the line are shown the signs of the zodiac constellations summer and autumn
To the left of the line are represented those of the constellations of the zodiac signs of spring and winter.
What most visitors enjoy about Pincio Gardens is the big quantity of nineteenth-century busts of famous Italians that line the pathways. There are 228 in all and they are in various states of disrepair.

One of many beautiful squares in the city, the Quirinal place is located near the palace of the same name, home to the president of Italy. The Piazza del Quirinale and the Palazzo del Quirinale sit atop Quirinal Hill, the highest of the seven hills of Rome.

On the west side of the square a balustrade overlooking the panorama of the capital.
Quirinal Obelisk

The obelisk of the Quirinal is one of thirteen ancient obelisks of Rome, located in Piazza del Quirinale, where part of the fountain of Castor. It has a height 14,63 meters and with stand reaches 28.94 meters. The fact of not having inscriptions is assumed that its construction is not as old as most of the Egyptian obelisks.
Was found in 1527 along with his twin, but was built only in 1786, by Pope Pius VI, next to the statues of Castor from the nearby thermal baths of Constantine, by the architect
The east side of the square is bordered by the Consulta Palace, already tribunal of the Papal States, then the Ministry of Italian Africa, now home, since 1955, the Constitutional Dellacorte.
Dioscuri Fountain
The original fountain, which no longer exists, commissioned by Pope Sixtus V in 1588, had the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux statues, from Constantine I of Rome's Baths.
Consulta Place
Commisioned by Pope Alexander VII,
the square was designed and built by Bernini from 1656 to 1667.
The Baths of Diocletian , the largest Terme of ancient Rome , were begun in 298 by Emperor Maximian appointed Augustus of the Roman Empire by Diocletian , and opened in 306 , after the abdication of both.

The square is an elliptical shaped area surrounded by two hemycicles of a four-row colonnade.
This fountain was the inspiration to Francesco Robba (1698–1757) for the Robba fountain, which stands (since 2006 as a replica) at Town Square in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. It is one of the city's most recognisable symbols.
The doric columns are 1.6 meters large and 20 meters high.
The column including its base is forty-two meters tall. This was exactly the height of the hill that stood at this site. It had been leveled to create open space for the construction of Trajan's Forum.

The egyptian obelisk was moved to the middle of the square by Domenico Fontana in 1585.
Around the year 1670 Bernini pupil's built 140 statues of saints over the colonnades.

Each has propylaeum crowning two bronze chariots surmounted by Victorias, which reproduce the synergies and expressive architectural arches of triumph. The two chariots, as expressly declare the Latin inscriptions placed on the pediments of the Propylaea, symbolizing the unity of the Fatherland - PATRIAE UNITATI- (left) and the freedom of citizens - CIVIUM LIBERTATI (right), summarize the key themes of the monument.

The chariot, already foreseen in the original project, were built and placed in 1927; the sculptor of the chariot of the unity of the Fatherland was Carlo Fontana, while the chariot of freedom is the work of Paolo Bartolini. Rosalia Bruni was the model chosen by Fontana for Victory on the Quadriga of Unity, as tradition has it that the face on the chariot of Liberty is one of the noblewoman Vittoria Colonna, Duchess of Sermoneta.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is a tomb containing the remains of a soldier killed in the war, whose body has not been identified, and that you think will never be identified. It is a symbolic tomb that represents all those who have died in a conflict and that have never been identified. The practice of having a tomb of the Unknown Soldier has spread especially after the First World War, a war in which the number of unidentified bodies was enormous.
The monument was built
during the reign of Hadrian
and than remodeled during
that of Costantine with:
The displacement
in the outside of the
The addition of reliefs and decorations
The Arch of Costantine
is one of the most important
arches with three openings,
located in Rome a short distance
from the Colosseum
Was erected to commemorate
the victory of Costantine over
Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian
Bridge (October 28,312) and opened on
25 July 315
Among the findings of the arch
represented various pagan gods.
and with the insertion of the large frieze Trajan
Is one of the major churches of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers, better known as the Dominicans. The church's name derives from the fact that the first Christian church structure on the site was built directly over the ruins or foundations of a temple dedicated to the Egyptian goddess Isis, which had been erroneously ascribed to the Greco-Roman goddess Minerva.
The church is located in the Piazza della Minerva one block behind the Pantheon in the Pigna rione of Rome, Italy, within the ancient district known as the Campus Martius.
The ensemble of buildings that formed around the church and convent came to be known as the 'insula sapientae" or "insula dominicana'
In Roman times there were three temples in what is now the area surrounding the basilica and former convent buildings: the Minervium, built by Gnaeus Pompey in honour of the goddess Minerva, the Iseum dedicated to Isis, and the Serapeum dedicated to Serapis. Around the temple were found Egyptian monuments like obelisks.The church was undergone many transformations, commissioned by various popes at the time .
Convent ,stadium and College of Saint Thomas
While many other medieval churches in Rome have been given Baroque makeovers that cover Gothic structures, the Minerva is the only extant example of original Gothic church building in Rome.Behind a restrained Renaissance style façade, the Gothic interior features arched vaulting that was painted blue with gilded stars and trimmed with brilliant red ribbing in a 19th-century Neo-Gothic restoration.

In front of the church there is one of the most curious monuments of Rome, the so-called Pulcino della Minerva. It is a statue designed by the Baroque era sculptor Gian Lorenzo Bernini and Ercole Ferrata of an elephant as the supporting base for the one of Rome's eleven Egyptian obelisk found in the Dominicans' garden

Carafa Chapel

Cappella Capranica

Michelangelo's Cristo della Minerva

Cappella Aldobrandini

Cappella Raymond of Penyafort

Other major artworks as tombs


Saint Catherine of Siena is buried here The famous early Renaissance painter Fra Angelico died in the adjoining convent and was buried in the church. Popes Urban VII, Paul IV and the Medici popes Leo X and Clement VII were also buried in the churc
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