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Renaissance Explorers

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Julian Thompson

on 26 February 2013

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Transcript of Renaissance Explorers

Focus on...

Why they did the exploration?
What legacy did they leave?
Who supported and funded them,?
Why did they do so?
Did the church support it and why? Born in 1254
Born into a very wealthy family
Father Niccilo, and Uncle Maffeo Polo were merchants
Received a moderate education as any gentlemen of his day would Passed through Armenia Passed through Persia Passed through
Afghanistan Passed over
the Pamirs Traveled
along the Silk
Road Influences to Journey In 1260 both Maffeo and Niccilo Polo went on to Sura where they traded for a year.
Civil War broke out
Fled to Bukhara, where they were marooned for three years
Saved by Mongolian ambassador who convinced them to travel to see the Khan. Influences (Cont) They were brought to the Khan's court at Beijing.
There the Khan asked them about the Pope and the Roman Church
Kublai was fascinated with the Christian Religion and asked The Polo's to ask the Pope to send him 100 learned men to teach his people about Christianity and Western science. Marco's Journey Dad and uncle came back when Marco was 15
They all stayed in Venice for two years
At the end of year 1271, with letters and valuable gifts for the Great Khan from the new Pope Tedaldo the Polo's set out from Venice on their journey to the east Mongolian Empire Most of China was under control of the Mongolian empire
Yuan dynasty ruled China
Chinese people hated the Mongolians
Bigger and more powerful than all of Europe Meeting the Great Khan After 3.5 years from traveling 5600 miles Marco Polo finally met the Khan in Cambaluc.
The Khan was kind in welcoming the explorers
Marco described the palace as "the Palace that ever was" Years in the Khans Court Marco was a gifted linguist and mastered four languages
He became a favourite of the Khan and was appointed to high positions in his court.
Marco fell in love with China and marveled at its innovations that were far greater than Europe.
While working for the Khan, Marco traveled places that no european would see again until the 19th century. Return Trip After seventeen years of serving the Khan in his court, Marco polo became weary.
The Khan was in his late 70's and they did not know if they could get their considerable fortune that they attained over the years out of the country when he died.
Sailed home on two year trip.
600 passengers and crew died.
Golden tablet from the Khan ensured safety. Arrival After 3 years home, Polo led a small army against rival city, Genoa.
Captured and imprisoned for 1 year.
wrote book during prison.
Book became European best seller.
Man of a thousand lies (Marco Milione)
told about the Chinese use of coal, paper money and compasses. Death Summer of 1299 peace was reached
Polo was released from prison
Much speculation whether Marco Polo actually visited China
Stories were very extravagant and lavish
When Marco Polo was on his death bed he was asked to admit he lied about his travels
Marco replied with "I have not told half of what I saw" Legacy Marco's Polo's book may be untrue, however it stands among the great exploration records in history
His book reached many people throughout history
Christopher Columbus owned the book and was one of his inspirations to travel
Improved European/Mongolian relations
There is a lot of Myth surrounding Marco Polo and his journeys Grew Up in Venice
The center for commerce in the Mediterranean Marco Polo (1254-1324), Cathay (China) Ferdinand Magellan Born in 1480 in northern Portugal
Interested in traveling at an early age
First circumnavigation of the globe
Benefited from earlier explorers mistakes Departs on September 20th, 1519
5 tiny ships, 237 men Anchored 5 months later in
present day Rio de Janeiro Continued sailing south
along South America Sailed from Atlantic Ocean
to the Pacific Ocean End of his Journey
Killed in battle while
in the Philippines Early Life •Parents died when he was ten, then he became a page to Queen Leonor
•March 1505: Magellan enlisted in the fleet of 22 ships sent to host D. Franciso de Almeida
•Participated in many battles
•Returned to Portugal in 1512 Beginning of Exploration •King Manuel denied request to go to the Spice Islands in 1517
•Studied charts and maps of previous explorers
•October 1517: presented his pitch with partner Rui Faleiro, to King Charles of Spain
•On 22 March 1518 the king named Magellan and Faleiro captains so that they could travel in search of the Spice Islands in July The King's Support Monopoly of discovered route for 10 years
Their appointment as governors of the lands and islands found and 5% of the resulting net gains.
1/5 of travel gains
The right to levy one thousand ducat on upcoming trips, paying only 5% on the remainder
An island for each, from which they would receive a fifteenth
Funding and supplies for two years Beginning of the Journey King Charles provided 5 ships
Left Spain on August 10th 1519
Descended down river where they stayed for a few weeks
Set sail on September 20th
King Manuel ordered a ship to follow them, however Magellan avoided the ship. The Victoria Influences Experience from other explorers
Portuguese/Spanish relations
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas
Had to Avoid Eastern route to Asia Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) Born in Genoa, Italy
One of the best known explorers
master navigator and admiral who lead four transatlantic voyages
opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas
has long been called the “discoverer” of the New World Arrival in the Philippines Early Life Age of Explorers On 17 March Magellan reached the island of Homonhon in the Philippines
With 150 crew left
The first Spaniards to reach the Philippine archipelago
April 7th- Guided to Cebu by Rajah Siaiu
Tried to convert the natives to Christianity Death and Return April 27th 1951: Sailed to Mactan where he was attacked with bamboo spears by the natives and killed
After the Phillipenes, there wasn’t enough crew to sail all three remaining ships
Burned one and sailed two of them back
After reaching the Spice Islands on 6 November 115 crew were left
Trinidad began to take on water
Victoria was not large enough to accommodate all the surviving crew
Victoria with some of the crew sailed west for Spain. Return Was the eldest son of Domenico Colombo, a Genoese wool worker and merchant
Made his way to becoming a portuguese merchant
After surviving a shipwreck off Cape St. Vincent at the southwestern point of Portugal in 1476 he based himself in Lisbon
Both were employed as chart makers
Columbus preferred to travel
In 1477 he sailed to Iceland and Ireland Several weeks later, Trinidad departed and attempted to return to Spain
Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese,
Wrecked in a storm
On 6 September 1522, Elcano and the remaining crew of Magellan's voyage arrived in Spain aboard the last ship in the fleet, Victoria, almost exactly three years after they departed. During the time of Columbus, Europe was starting its age of exploration
Portugal was particularly well situated geographically to explore Africa and the Atlantic
The europeans were trying to gain surprising from the Muslims
Ottoman empire were blocking any trade that was to happen between Europe and Asia Influences Columbus always had a fascination for exploration
Owned a copy of Marco Polo's book about his journey
As he was living and working in Lisbon
This was a hub for trading and exploration.
From 1482 to 1485 Columbus traded along the Guinea and Gold coasts of tropical West Africa
Made a voyage to the Portuguese fortress of Sao Jorge da Mina Gathering Support In 1484 Columbus began seeking support for an Atlantic crossing from King John II of Portugal
The trip was suppose to find a way to Asia and India from crossing the Atlantic.
As he was trying to gain support Dias reached the southern tip of Africa and then traveled 300 miles north until he was force by his crew to turn around
Dias discover the length of Africa and also a new route to India Turning to Spain After Portugal denied Columbus of his trip he turned to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Spain used to be split up into many kingdoms
After many tries finally Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to fund Columbus's journey
They decided to fund Columbus because Christian missionary and anti-Islamic tension, the power of Castile and Aragon, the fear of Portugal's power, the lust for gold, the desire for adventure, the hope of conquests, and Europe’s need for a reliable supply of herbs and spices for cooking, preserving, and medicine made them agree to support Columbus Overview of Trip There was a ton of interest generated with this voyage
Columbus himself clearly hoped to rise from his humble beginnings to accumulate riches for his family
Spain hoped to gain more power over rival monarchies like Portugal
Also hoped to gain favor with the Christian church against the infidels left on Aug. 3, 1492
Took three ships, the Niña, Pinta, the Consortia and the Santa María Sailed southward to the Canary Islands Traveled west across the Atlantic On October 12th San Salvador was spotted
Columbus claimed it for Spain On October 28 Landed in Cuba Thought it was Cipangu (Japan). Adverse winds carried the fleet to an island called Ayti (Haiti) on December 6
Columbus renamed it La Isla Española, or Hispaniola Return Trip Back in Spain Other Voyages Legacy On January 16, 1493, Columbus left with his remaining two ships for Spain
The trip home was a nightmare
They hit a storm in mid-February
This lead them to take refuge in the Azores
They were arrested by Portuguese authorities
After release they sailed the damaged ships back to Spain When Columbus arrived back to Spain there was a lot of tension
He brought back little gold, but he promised an almost limitless supply of cotton, spices, timber, and slaves
He told Ferdinand and Isabella that the people were ready for conversion to Christianity
Columbus's apparently high religious aspirations were incompatible with the realities of trading, competition, and colonization
Also Columbus wanted to take back many material goods, so he had his men committing many acts of looting, kidnapping and pillaging Columbus had another three voyages to the "new world" or what he thought was Asia
Six months after his first voyage he started another one that was much larger
The trip was relatively unsuccessful
Columbus's third and forth trip were much smaller because of the no relative gains from the second voyage
The indigenous people were hostile from Columbus's forces and had managed to wipe out a settlement on Hispaniola
On his fourth voyage he managed to land on present day Venezuela, Columbus thought he had found India. Death Columbus died an unexpected death on May 20, 1506
He never knew how big of a mistake he made with his discovery of the new world
He died thinking he found Japan (Cuba), India (Venezuela) and China
Columbus never how important his discovery actually was Columbus exploration was one of the most daring and important findings of all time
Although he never knew the magnitude of his discovery Columbus started a rush of exploration to the west
Other countries like France, Britain, and Portugal began to explore the "new world"
This lead to many wars and conflicts that has shaped our world today Legacy (cont) The exportation's that followed Columbus' legacy started the wide economic expansion of western Europe
These expeditions with mixed desire for knowledge, profit, and Christian conversion started the colonization of North America Legacy Megellanic Penguin
Megellanic Clouds
First to cross from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean
First circumnavigate the globe Conclusion Voyages of exportation, trade, conquest, and settlement created a sense of wonder at the courage, bravery, and skill at the captains and explores of the Renaissance. Every explorer was in it for a different reason, the quest for power, the striving for profit, and the lust for conquest. Whatever the reason the explorers of the Renaissance left their mark on the world. With the expanding influence of individualism and humanism that allowed these men to travel to incredible lengths to achieve their goals.
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