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Nursing Theories

A Comparison of Orem, Benner & Leininger

Karlie Harper

on 24 October 2013

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Transcript of Nursing Theories

Patricia Benner
From Novice to Expert
Dorothea Orem's
Self-Care Deficit Theory
Madeleine Leininger
Cultural Care Theory
Nursing Theories
Dorothea Orem
Self-Care Deficit Theory
Patricia Benner
From Novice to Expert
Madeleine Leininger Cultural Care Theory
A Comparison Between:
Nursing is such a complex profession that it is only through lived experience that we gain expertise. Expertise is when we act on intuition rather than concrete reasoning
A Star Wars Comparison
A Baby Comparison
Relationship Between the Elements
Benner's Nursing Levels of Experience
Knowledge Level
Method of Thought
Key Points
Orem's Concepts
Healthy Individual
Maintain Good Physical and Mental Health
Maintain Health and Well-Being
Prevent Illness or Accident
Care for Minor Ailments and Long-Term Conditions
Meet Social and Psychological Needs
the nurse accomplishes ALL of the patient's self-care, as well as, supports & protects the patient
Partly Compensatory
Nursing Systems
the nurse assists the patient as required, compensates for the self-care limitation
the patient regulates self-care agency through performance of their own self-care
the patient accomplishes self-care while the nurse helps them to exercise and develop of self-care agency
There is a Need for Nursing When:
Self-Care Deficit
Ability to Meet Demand
Conceptual Framework
Key Points
Wholly Compensatory
Nurses must be able to recognize and interpret cultural differences in values and beliefs
Instead of
Seeing everyone as the same
The core of nursing is caring. This sets it apart from other professions
Fail to meet cultural care needs = less patient satisfaction = longer recovery time
Care must be
Cultural awareness is NOT always conducive to
a conceptual guide that represents factors to be considered in relation to the theory principles and the area of analysis
The Sunrise Model
Most general information during assessment of individual or group
insider (indigenous) views & values of a phenomenon
outsider views & values of a phenomenon
incorporate both into basic nursing care practices
The decisions made and actions taken should allow for preservation/maintenance, accommodation/negotiation, and/or repatterning/restructuring of culture care
All concepts together form
"assist, support, facilitate or enable individuals or groups to maintain or regain their health or well-being in a culturally meaningful and beneficial ways, or to help individuals face handicaps or deaths"
Culture is the background of Benner's theory
Culture is the central focus of Leininger's theory
Implicit knowledge is used by both:
Leininger differentiates between curing and caring
Benner differentiates between illness and disease
ILLNESS in Benner's theory relates to CARING in Leininger's theory
DISEASE to Benner relates to CURING to Leininger
Both are not logically constructed
Orem's theory
logically constructed,
Benner's is
Orem only describes patient-based information as relevant
Benner describes features of nurses and their experience
Benner is
Orem is
Orem is
Benner is
Leininger is
Orem neglects to incorporate culture whereas it

is the of Leininger's theory
Leininger is all about CULTURE to influence health experience
Orem is all about SELF-CARE to return to optimal state
experience of care
Orem focuses on
of care
BOTH believe
understanding a
person's culture is
required to provide
Leininger expects nurses to have knowledge of all cultures for culturally congruent care. In reality culture is defined differently by each person & it is unrealistic to expect each nurse know how to provide care accordingly
Application to Practice
Since Benner based her theory on observation of nurses in the clinical setting, it clearly defines the reality of practice
Nursing is more than JUST focusing on the deficit or the disease. Orem's theory is shallow in not considering any aspect of the patient other than their deficits, therefore, it is not reflective of actual practice
Comparison of Benner & Leininger
Orem & Leininger

Both focus on Patient Care
Comparison between
Orem & Benner

found within
our written
Cultural and social structure dimensions are the factors that influence health; those that are assessed vary according to the situation
Full transcript