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Chapter 8-9 analysis
Transcript of Chapter 8-9 analysis
.Places such as Ethiopia, east Africa, and eastern Sudan have long been influenced by Islam.
.Exports o f ivory slaves, and gold from Africa brought people into a widening network of relations
.Some civilizations weren't as greatly impacted by islam, such as Great Zimbabwe, the Kongo kingdom, Yoruba, and Benin. Zimbabwe and the Kongo kingdom focused more on Bantu concepts of kingship and state building independently of trends taking place in elsewhere on the continent. Slide 2: Slide 3: .Cultural fusion between Islam and indigenous people sparked government bases.
.Africa had increasing become part of the general cultural trends of the wider world.
. People wanted to migrate to successful civilizations in the African continent. Slide 3 People of the Forest and Plains:
.Yoruba and Benin- Focused more on kinship ties and the bronze art that contributed towards the kings and past rulers, rather than Islam.
.Art was very realistic, and flourished within the city-states.
.Yoruba people of the Ile Ife came under Benin control.
.Benin people used iron weapons like the spear and bow until they came into contact with the Portuguese in the 15th century.
.These weapons dominated others partly because of iron technology.
.When the Europeans invaded, they also stole their bronze artwork. Slide 2 Mali, 13th-15th centuries:
.Sundiata was born from Mandinka king and became a brilliant mansa. Was a hero or origins and created social arrangement. System was well thought out and organized as well as punishment being served when needed.
.Sundiata dies in 1260, and his successors expanded the border of Mali.
.Sundiata's grandson, Mansa Musa, Takes a pilgrimage to mecca and Mali grows rich from the gold he brings back and distributes it to everyone within the empire.
.Mali's power began to wane when Mansa Musa dies, and dynastic struggles made it easy for Songhai to take over. Question 2.) Describe the rise and fall of african states and societies. Kingdoms of the Grasslands:
.Trans-Saharan trade along the sahel brought great wealth to Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.
.South- Had the gold mines, North- Had the salt (and european and middle eastern markets) These kingdoms had wide access to a variety of goods and became wealthy in the process. .Pattern= Civilizations under Islam were more powerful and developed.
. Most contacts with African civilizations were made by people other than themselves, such as the portuguese people of Europe. (cough cough important)
.Arrivals of Europeans in sub-Sahara Africa in late 15th century made pace and intensity of the cultural and commercial contacts even greater.
.Different Julla merchants such as the Malinkes and Mandinkas were links of contact between the different civilizations and stirred the sharing of ideas.
.Military expansion or powerful African civilizations expanded the cities borders, such as Mali under the control of Sundiata and after his death. Ghana, 4th-11th centuries: .The 4th century Berbers migrated across Sahara and Sahel to begin 1st West African civilization, Ghana. Soninke people later dominated empire.
.Because Ghana allowed people to practice religions that aren't Islam, Berbers announced holy war (Jihad) against them.
.At first Ghana knew little about long distance trade until Islamic influence brought camels into civilizations and a trade system could be established. however, Mali was noticed for it's wealth first. .Ghana decline came by Almoravid invasions from the north. Sundiata Mansa Musa Songhai, 15th-16th centuries:
.Songhai arose after Malis decline, pattern= One civilization rises after one declines.
.Sonni Ali, King of Gao, drove berbers north and conquered some parts of the Mali empire.
.Thrived on gold that passed through its territory.
.Calvary expanded borders, and conquered Timbuktu and Jenne.
.Remained in dominate power until 1591, when Moroccos invaded and internal revolts started due to the weak military power, and all parts of the empire broke away. Sonni Ali Swahili Coast of East Africa:
.African ports settled along the east african coast and had trade routes linked with one another.
.Grew wealthy from maritime trade, and traded with everyone that surrounded the indian ocean.
.Kilwa grew wealthy because it had access to gold.
.Portuguese arrived on coast around 1500, by this time the center of trade moved to Malindi and Mombasa.
.Portuguese eventually raided Kilwa and Mombasa in attempt to take control of trade, as well as the gold trade, but were unsuccessful in controlling trade in northern Swahili coast. Kongo and Muene Mupta:
.Kongo flourished on Agricultural bases. The people also benifited off the skills of weaving, pottery, blacksmiths, and carving.
.Great Zimbabwea flourished over its sources of gold.
.16th century- Internal divisions and rebellion split kingdom apart, possibly the emphasis of the wealthy status on cattle led to soil exhaustion.