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The Temperate Forest

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John Embry

on 16 May 2011

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Transcript of The Temperate Forest

The Temperate Forest By: John Embry & Cody Mclemore Temperate forests are also known as Deciduous forest. These are found in Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan. They are located in the mid-latitude areas found between the Polar Regions and the tropics. Temperate forests are also known as Deciduous forest. These are found in Eastern United States, Canada, Europe, China, and Japan. They are located in the mid-latitude areas found between the Polar Regions and the tropics. Deciduous forests are in warm and cold air regions, which cause this area to have four seasons. The temperature varies greatly from season to season with cold winters and hot, wet summers. Average yearly precipitation in the Temperate Forest in Staunton, Virginia: Average yearly temperature in Staunton, Virginia Biotic Factors of The Temperate Forest Plantae Some plantae in the Temperate Forest: Protista Some Protista in the Temperate Forest: The Oak Tree The Elm Tree Mosses Paramecium Amoeba Fungi Some Fungi in the Temperate Forest: Mushrooms Lichens Animalia Some animalia in the Temperate Forest: Red Fox Porcupine Black Bear Hawk Archaebacteria Some arcahebacteria in the Temperate Forest: Bacillus subtilis Crenarchaeota Eubacteria Some eubacteria in the Temperate Forest: nterobacter agglomerans Enterobacter agglomerans Escherichia Coli Abiotic Factors Elevation- Usually highly elevated, but the Temperate forest can have low elevation. Topography- A temperate forest is hilly, sometimes flat area that has many trees, shrubs, mosses, herbs, and ferns. Leaves, twigs, and many plants cover the ground. Soil Conditions- The soil is very fertile. In fact, some of the great agricultural regions are found in this biome Average Yearly Wind Speed Food Chains of the Temperate Forest Food Web of the Temperate Forest The Nutrient Cycles The Water Cycle The water cycle is the process of recycling water in a habitat. In the water cycle, water molecules enter the atmosphere as water vapor when they evaporate from the lakes and streams found in the temperate forest (evaporation). Water can also enter the atmosphere by evaporation from the leaves of plants (transpiration). In the temperate forest, transpiration occurs more often than evaporation because of the lack of bodies of water and the quantity of plants. As the warm, moist air rises, it cools. Then, the water vapor condenses into tiny droplets that form clouds. When the droplets become large enough, the water returns to Earth’s surface in the form of precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail). On the Earth, much of the precipitation runs along the surface of the ground until it enters a river or stream that carries the runoff back to an ocean or lake. Rain also seeps into the soil, and some of it becomes ground water. The water in the soil enters plants through roots, and the water cycle starts over. The Carbon Cycle The carbon cycle is the process by which carbon is recycled throughout the Earth. In the atmosphere, carbon is present as carbon dioxide. In the temperate forest carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere by respiration, human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and vegetation, and by the decomposition of organic matter. Plants take in carbon dioxide and use the carbon to build carbohydrates during photosynthesis. The carbohydrates are passed along food webs to animals and other consumers. Eventually these compounds break down and the carbon returns to the atmosphere. There are four main types of processes that move carbon through its cycle: Biological processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, and decomposition, take up and release carbon and oxygen. Geochemical processes, such as erosion, release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Mixed biogeochemical processes, such as the burial and decomposition of dead organisms, and their conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum, store carbon underground. Human activities, cutting and burning forests, and burning fossil fuels, release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The Nitrogen Cycle The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is cycled through the soil and the tissues of living organisms to make amino acids, which in turn are used to build proteins. Many forms of nitrogen occur naturally in the biosphere while others are found in the wastes produced by many organisms and in dead and decaying organic matter. Nitrogen gas is the most abundant form of nitrogen on Earth but only certain types of bacteria can use it directly. These bacteria live in the soil and on the roots of plants (legumes) and they convert the nitrogen gas into ammonia during nitrogen fixation. Other bacteria in the soil convert ammonia into nitrates and nitrites. Then producers use them to make proteins, consumers eat the producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins. When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil as ammonia and the ammonia is taken up again by producers. Other soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas during denitrification; this process releases nitrogen into the atmosphere once again, completing the cycle. The Phosphorus Cycle The phosphorus cycle is the process by which phosphorus is recycled. Unlike the nutrients in the other cycle, phosphorus does not enter the atmosphere. It actually remains mostly on land in rocks. In the rocks of the temperate forest, the phosphorus exists as inorganic phosphate. As the rocks wear down, phosphate is released. Some of the phosphates washes into rivers and streams, where it dissolves, but some phospate stays on on land and cyclees between organisms and the soil. When the plants take in phosphate from the soil or water, the plant turns the phosphate into organic compounds. Then the organic phosphate moves through the food web, from producers to consumers, and to the rest of the ecosystem. Symbiosis in the Temperate Forest Example of Symbiosis 1: Many flowers in the Temperate Forest depend on certain species of insects to pollinate them. The flowers provide the insects with food in the form of nectar, pollen, or other substances, and the insects help the flowers reproduce. Type of Relationship: Mutualism Example 1 is mutualism because both species benefit. The insect gets food and the plant can reproduce. Example of Symbiosis 2: In the relationship of a squirrel and a tree, the tree is not harmed or affected by the squirrel, but the squirrel gets shelter and a place to store food. Type of Relationship: Commensalism Example 2 is commensalism because the squirrel benefits, but the tree is unaffected. Example of Symbiosis 3: Tapeworms are parasites that live in the intestines of mammals and they eat the food that the mammal eats. Eventually, the mammal dies of mal nutrition. Type of Relationship: Parasitism Example 3 is parasitism because the tapeworm gets all of its needs from the mammal, but the mammal suffers and eventually dies. The tapeworm benefits, but the mammal does not. Disaster in the Temperate Forest When a tornado hits a temperate forest, it brings about an important change. The high winds reduce the number of trees, change the size of trees, erode soil and cause a loss in soil nutrients. The tornado can kill entire tracts of trees causing many animals’ habitats being destroyed. Trees with shallow roots are more likely to be totally uprooted while large trees can see tremendous damage but remain rooted. The mortality to large trees can be large because of a lower probability of sprouting. Forest damage is not uniform, as some trees and plants in the same diameter will experience more damage than others. Where damage is severe, dead woody debris will provide new nutrients to the soil. After a tornado, forests may see the release of advance regeneration, seed germination or accelerated seedling growth. Succesion in the Forest Because soil and life was previously in the forest, primary succession does not occur, secondary succesions does.
After the tornado hits the forest small plants and shrubs begin to grow using the nutrients in the soil from decaying plants. Soon bigger plants like trees begin to grow. For example, small deciduous trees such as oaks and hickory will begin to grow. Succession in the Temperate Forest Continued As the new trees will have smaller branches and leaves than their predecessors, more sunlight and warmer temperatures will occur. This in turn causes different grasses and plants to grow under the trees. With fewer leaves, more solar radiation reaches the ground, which warms the soil and causes more seed germination and facilitates the growth of shade-intolerant plants, grasses, and trees such as the aspen. The increased ground vegetation provides more organic material for growth and attracts various species of forest wildlife. New tree growth also brings an increase in tree persistence through resprouting of new trees and branches. As secondary succession continues, the temperate forest is regenerated stronger and more balanced than before the tornado. Work Cited "Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome." VT Forest Biology and Dendrology. Web. 16 May 2011. <http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/Forsite/tdfbiome.htm>.

"Temperate Deciduous Forest Biomes." Virtual Teacher Aide. Web. 16 May 2011. <http://www.vtaide.com/png/temperateBiomes.htm>.

"Temperate Deciduous Forest." Marietta College. Web. 16 May 2011. <http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/tempded.htm>.

"Temperate Forest." Globio | Where Kids Discover the World | Portland, OR. Web. 16 May 2011. <http://www.globio.org/glossopedia/article.aspx?art_id=3>. THE END Daises Ferns Wolf Spiders Squirrel Japanese Beetle
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