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General Geology of Westface of Southern Gunung Semanggol wit
Transcript of General Geology of Westface of Southern Gunung Semanggol wit
Results & Discussions
Conclusion & Reccommendations
By : Azri Afif Rosli (13710)
Supervisors: Mr. Md. Yazid B. Mansor & Mr. Mohd. Shaufi Sokiman
Background Study :
Located 13km NW of Taiping, Perak, Malaysia.
Small narrow range of hills trending in a N-S direction.
Permo-Triassic age rock.
One of outcrops within the Semanggol Formation in Perak
There a few research studies has been made in the area compare to others Semanggol Formation.
There a few papers, but most of it are pre-1990, which is outdated about 20 years.
Hence, the general geology of southern Gng. Semanggol lack of details, and overall poor descriptions of its tectono- stratigraphy.
To study the geological setting of the area
To produce a geological map, cross section, lithology map, and traverse map.
To propose a model of how Gng. Semanggol formed in term of tectono stratigraphic evolution.
General Geology of West Face of Southern Gunung Semanggol with Emphasis on Tectonic Evolution
Semanggol Formation – first used by alexander in 1959 to designate the sediment exposed in the semanggol range.
The formation extend its outcrop to the east of baling area and to the south of kulim.
The thickness is believed no less than 760m thick (foo, 1990).
Tightly folded and absence of marker horizons.
Basir (2001), found eight Radiolarian, and most of them were identified to be aged in between late Permian and late Triassic period.
Two dominant facies : 1. intraformal conglomerates and sandstone; 2. rhythmically bedded sandstone with a few bands of chert(Foo,1990).
Also contain minor intercallations of siltstone and chert (Courtier,1974)
In 1970, Burton described that semanggol formation as a rapidly alternating sequence of shale, siltstone, and sandstone with a few bands of cherts.
Youngs towards Northwest (burton 1973).
Chert – oldest (Permian), and sandstone conglomerates – youngest (Triassic)
Sediments in gng. Semanggol tightly folded and are composed of arenaceous facies overlain by sandstone-shale interbeds (Hutchison, 2009).
Consist of a series of asymmetrical folds having a N-S trend (Foo,1990).
Results & Discussions
6 outcrops were observed, and labeled as :
Outcrop 1a,1b, 2a, 2b, 3a and 4.
Facies found in the transect area :
1. Thick bed of sandstone
2. Bedded of cherts intercalations with shale and siltstone.
3. Sandstone interbedded with shale and siltstone.
4. Two blocks of conglomerates (probably not part of Semanggol Formation)
5. Igneous Rock Intrusion (East Side)
Sandstone with bands of cherts.
10-15cm, interbedded with thin layer of shales (eroded).
Dipping to west and strike direction to Southeast.
Outcrop 1b showed a thick sandstone bed overlie on top of bedding of cherts and mudstone with minor siltstone and quartzite interbeds.
Thickness beds of cherts about 2-15cm while the thickness of the sandstone is about 1.2m.
Sharp contact in between Triassic sandstone and Permian chert showed by red line.
Thin Section Analysis
Plain Polarized and Cross Polarized Sample Outcrop 1a.
Grain size : Medium to fine grain.
Abundant quartz which is in blue colour.
Abundant grain supported matrix.
Moderately indurated, with silica cement.
Sandstones are interpreted as deepwater sediments deposited on the older chert basin floor,possibly as a result of erosion and reworking of uplifted collision margin to east of semanggol basin.
Thin Section Analysis
Plain Polarized and Cross Polarized Sample Outcrop 1b
Grain size : fine grain to silts and shales.
Predominantly quartz which is in blue colour. crystallized silica can be seen in higher magnification.
Some biotite shows in greenish brown colour.
Chert matrix – brownish black in colour.
associated with shales, and older cherts of deep water origin.
these high silica content sample, implies a very deep depositional basin, probably below the CCD, because no carbonate evidence were observed.
High concentration of Silica indicates chert.
Fe concentration low, due to deep marine origin.
Below 1% shows impurities in the sample
High concentration of silica.
Fe concentration higher than sample 1a, indicates sample undergone a lot of weathering process and possibly subaerial erosion
Outcrop 2a, where a block of conglomerate is found. 20m x 5m of size.
The conglomerates appeared to be cemented by white volcanic ash material. It is very, very hard that attempts to knock off a piece using geological hammer were unsuccessful.
We came back later with supervisor and support with core driller to cut a couple of cores in the agglomerate, as above. It took more than 45 minutes to cut each core due to the crystallized cement nature. A sedimentary conglomerate units would have not been that difficult to cut.
This outlier is not one of the permo-Triassic semanggol formation, because this type of rock is not observed anywhere else around the gng. Semanggol area.
Most probably an agglomerate resulted from the (TOBA, sumatera? 75,000 years ago?) volcanic explosion during recent times.
Outcrop 4, an abandoned quarry owned by JKR.
The outcrop is filled with breccia encased within extremely hard crystallised matrix.
The breccias include Permian chert pieces, sub-angular sandstones country rock.
The matrix appeared to be tuffaceous, igneous origin.
Following discussion with my supervisor in the field, due to the outcrop’s inclusion of younger country rock, then its origin must post-date the Permo-Triassic Semanggol Formation.
This outcrop was described by Azhar Hussin (1993) as a pre-semanggol formation, a silica-cemented conglomerate. This was contested by Nurai Tee Abdullah in Geology of Peninsula Malaysia by Hutchison & Tan (2009)
This outcrop is interpreted as a minor shallow igneous intrusion that probably came through during the late stage upper Triassic folding, as the Easterly nearby major bintang granite batholith was emplaced.
Tectonic Evolution of Gunung Semanggol
Early Permian – Seperation of Sibumasu block from Gondwana.
Late Permian – Sibumasu block and East Malaya block start to collide to each other. Crustal Thickening occurred.
Early-Middle Triassic – Turbidity deposited towards west side (Semanggol Formation).
Late Triassic – Force from both blocks still continue, makes folding event occurred and S-Type granite exhumed. A minor igneous extrusion ripped up the country rock as breccias embedded in igneous matrix.
Mesozoic-Tertiary – Mainly Erosional event across Semanggol Basin.
Quartenary – Two volcanic blocks landed on west side of Gng. Semanggol. Possibly from Toba Super Eruption 70-75,000 years ago.
Permian chert beds forms the older, lower Semanggol formation east of the mapping area. Unconformably above is a coarser grained sandstone unit.
Based on the Geological map produced, The turbidite sandstone (Triassic) on the West Side of Gng. Semanggol, imply the younging direction is towards west.
Both these cherts and sandstones are deep-water sediments.
Two new volcanic units were interpreted(which were previously mapped as Semanggol conglomeratic units); The older a volcanic dyke intrusion from late Triassic, the younger is recent volcanic blocks probably related to toba eruption.
The theory and model of tectonic evolution of the transect area generated based on the lithofacies found during the field work, and modified from metcalfe,2013 regional tectonic.
Mineral and chemical composition of the agglomerate also should be done to confirm it is from a volcanic explosion , and therefore is not part of the semanggol formation.
A lot of analysis should be done especially to identify the age of the rocks either Permian or Triassic within the area.
Jungle traverse also need to be conduct to find more exposed outcrops especially on higher elevation of gng. Semanggol.
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