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Transcript of French Revolution
Ancien Regime was the tradition & social system of France, throughout the 1600's. The system was based on the concentration of all political, social & economic power between three classes:
First State: Monarchy, Roman Catholic Clergy.
Second State: Nobility, Landlords.
Third State: Bourgeoisie (middle class), peasants & city workers.
The scientific revolution was the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology, chemistry and transformed views of society and nature. This made people question old, established traditions, beliefs, and institutions. The scientific revolution began in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance era and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment.
Tennis Court Oath
Due to economic crisis , France was suffering financially so they had to heavily tax the people of the third estate. King Louie XVI assembles the Estates-General to make a decision. Even though the third estate made up the majority of France, they were unfairly outvoted and locked out. The Tennis Court Oath was signed by 576 of the 577 members of the third estate that were locked out on June 20th of 1789.
This leads to the storming of bastille, the first violent act of the French Revolution, which was seen as injustice and inequality of Old Regime and causes the Great Fear. Because of the Great Fear the National Assembly aboilshes feudal customs, creates the Decleration of the rights of Man and power shifts from monarch to aristocrat. The nationalistic sybol of tri-color was introduced.
France at war
As the revolution deepens, there is a shift in power once again from aristocrats to bourgeoisie, judiciary made of a series of courts and france is divided into 83 departments. Jacobins becomes dominant in the national assembly.
Revolutionary leaders want a war to unite people of France so they declare was on Austria. The Prussians warn Paris to surrender or they will burn the city down with the Austrians. They want the revolutionary leaders to get the tourture they deserve. All over France people rallied Liberty, Equality and Fraternity to defend the revolution.
Second French Revolution
On the 10th of August 1792 the king was overthrown and revolutionarys took over Paris city government and established a new administration called the commune. The newly elected National Convention votes to abolish monarchy once and for all. It is discorvered letters that showed the king was planning with Emigres to crush the revolution so King Louis XVI was exicuted. Then, for a third time, power shifts from bourgeoisie to the working class. The National Convention creates the Committee for Public Safety that has almost dictorial power and wages a brutal campain against the enemies of France which marks the begining of the Reign of Terror.
Levee en messe meant that every Frenchman could be drafted into the army so the rise a new French army is born.
End of Monarchy
National Constituent Assembly abolished feudalism on August 4, 1789, sweeping away both the seigneurial rights of the Second State (Nobility) and the tithes gathered by the First Estate (Roman Catholic Clergy). The Assembly also published the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen on August 26, 1789. Like the U.S. Declaration, it comprised a statement of principles rather than a constitution with legal effect. This statement of principles contained the kernel of a much more radical re-ordering of society than had yet taken place.
Napoleon Bonaparte came into power as leader of the Consulate, beginning in 1799. Under Napoleon, France became a nationalist power. Napoleon consolidated his rule by suppressing rebellions in France, normalizing relations with the Church in the Concordat of 1801, and streamlining the French law system in the Napoleonic Code. By 1804, Napoleon was so powerful that he declared himself Emperor.
Bourgeoisie: Merchants, manufacturers, lawyers, doctors & shopkeepers
The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural and social movement that spread through Europe during the 1700's. Not everyone participated, as many uneducated citizens were unable to share in the Enlightenment during its course but even their time would come, as the Enlightenment also prompted the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, which provided rural Dwellers with jobs and new cities in which to live.
Distribution of powers and rights between these different estates was the main cause of the explosion of anger among Third State representatives. All privileges were determined by birth and not by talent/skill.
All main political decisions were taken arbitrarily by the King and his advisers. Added to this system, a terrible economic crisis pushed the poorest people closer to revolt.
Revolt: Rise in rebellion
The Scientific Revolution
The philosophers, though varying in style and area of particular concern, generally emphasized the power of reason and sought to discover the natural laws governing human society.
Charles-Louis de Secondant, Baron de La Brede et de Montesquieu tackled politics by elaborating concepts such as the separation of power (divisions in the governments). Montesquieu himself believed that no governmental system is better than the others but rather that different forms were better than others in certain situations.
François-Marie Arouet or Voltaire took a more caustic approach, choosing to incite social and political change by means of satire and criticism. He was an avowed deist, believing in God but hating organized religion. As a result, he made Christianity a frequent target of his wit. Using his brilliant, sarcastic wit to analyze everything from philosophy to politics to law, he extolled the virtue of reason over superstition and intolerance and effectively became the voice of the Enlightenment.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Swiss-French thinker who brougth his own approach to the Enlightenment, believing that man was at his best when unshackled by the conventions of society. His political philosophy influenced not just the French Revolution but also the overall develpment of modern, political, sociological, and educational thought.
The Declaration saw law as an "expression of the general will", intended to promote this equality of rights and to forbid "only actions harmful to the society." It also discusses the need to provide for the common defense and states some broad principles about taxation.
"Article XVII - Property being an inviolable and sacred right, no one can be deprived of private usage, if it is not when the public necessity, legally noted, evidently requires it, and under the condition of a just and prior indemnity."
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
The revolution assailed not only the power of the nobility but, equally, the power of the Church. The clergy were generally not pleased, but were in no position to resist.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy turned the remaining clergy into employees of the State and required that they take an oath of loyalty to the constitution. Bishoprics were to correspond to départements and bishops were to be elected, vicars would replace canons, and all of the orders of monks and nuns that did not directly support such public functions as teaching or running hospitals were to be abolished; in theory, though, dogma and worship were not to be affected.
The pope never accepted the new arrangement, and it led to a schism in the Church, between those clergy who swore the required oath and accepted the new arrangement ("jurors" or "constitutional clergy") and the "non-jurors" or "refractory priests" who refused to do so.
Defeating the various military coalitions the other powers of Europe threw against him, Napoleon won battle after battle. He built a vast empire of dependant states and controlled the majority of Europe. Everywhere he went he spread the reforms and influence of the French Revolution to a remarkable extent.
Some of Napoleon's famous battles are:
Battle of Marengo (1800)
Battle of Austerlitz (1805)
Battle of Jena-Auerstadt (1806)
Battle of Friedland (1807).
Battle of Waterloo (1815)
In 1814, Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba and Louis XVIII took the throne of France, returning a Bourbon to the throne that had been lost by Louis XVI just twenty years earlier. As the powers were just starting to negotiate a settlement, Napoleon escaped from Elba and returned to France, raising an army during the period known as the Hundred Days. Napoleon's army was defeated by Wellington (Britain) and Blucher (Prussia) at Waterloo in June 1815. He was then exiled to Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he eventually died.
He built a vast empire of dependant states and controlled the majority of Europe. Everywhere he went he spread the reforms and influence of the French Revolution to a remarkable extent.
Napoleon's conquests spread the new ideas and new institutions of the French Revolution throughout Europe. The countries he occupied had versions of the Napoleonic Code imposed on them. The Napoleonic period was an extremely complicated time. Moral right and wrong are hard to distinguish: Napoleon was a dictator, but not a particularly evil one. He encouraged many developments that today are considered positive.
The meaning of the colours of the French flag may also represent the three main estates of the Ancien Regime: the clergy: white, the nobility: red and the bourgeoisie: blue.
The people of France beleve that white means peace and honesty, red - hardiness, bravery, strength, and blue - truth and loyalty.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
These three words are the French national motto and each word has significant meaning to the French revolution. Equality means freedom from the estate classes athe king, Liberty means all men are equal regardless of rank and Fraternity means unity between the civilians.