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Chapter 13 - Social Psychology
Transcript of Chapter 13 - Social Psychology
Interacting with People Survival The process by which people come to understand others Reproduction Aggression Behavior whose purpose is intended to harm another only appears when
goals are thwarted
according to Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis Cooperation Behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit opposites can lead to Prejudice A positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership Discrimination A positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership vs "He's a republican he must be a gun nut" "He's a Democrat, he must be lazy" Deindividuation A phenomenon that occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less aware of their individual values Diffusion of Responsibility Tendency to feel diminished responsibility when surrounded by others who are acting the same way behaving badly
in groups Altruism Behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself Benefits only others everyone involved may actually be due to Kin Selection The process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives Reciprocal Altruism Behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future Selectivity women tend to be more selective than men due to higher costs of sex
-Small number of eggs vs (essentially) unlimited sperm
-Physical costs of pregnancy
-Pregnancy prevents further reproduction until birth Situational factors Attraction Mere Exposure Effect The tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposure Physical factors Body Shape Men - Inverted triangle - signal of dominance
Women - Hourglass - signal of fertility Symmetry Bilateral symmetry - Signals of genetic health Age Men - mature facial features - signal of resources
Women - immature facial features - signal child-bearing capability Psychological factors People tend to prefer others who are similar to themselves in most respects Relationships Passionate love An experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy, and intense sexual attraction Companionate love An experience involving affection, trust, and concern for a partner's well-being Social Exchange People remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits Comparison level The cost benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship determined by Which body type is most attractive? People tend to agree regardless of culture The Hedonic Motive The Approval Motive The Accuracy Motive The ability to control another person's behavior Pleasure is better than pain Control others through
Punishments & Rewards Acceptance is better than rejection Normative Influence a phenomenon that occurs when another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate Norms customary standard for behavior that is widely shared by members of a culture drive Norm of reciprocity The unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them is a Door-in-the-face technique Asking for something more valuable than what you really want, so when you ask for what you really want it seems more reasonable Calvin attempts the door-in-the-face technique to no avail Conformity The tendency to do what others do simply because they are doing it uses Obedience The tendency to do what powerful people tell us to do. Right is better than wrong relies on Attitude An enduring positive or negative evaluation of an object or event Belief An enduring piece of knowledge about an object or event I.e. What we think we should do I.e. How we think we should do it Informational influence A phenomenon that occurs when a person's behavior provides information about what is good or right A laugh track is informational influence
What is a sitcom like without one? Persuasion A phenomenon that occurs when a person's attitudes or beliefs are influenced by a communication from another person Systematic persuasion The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to reason Heuristic persuasion The process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion type of type of This person is either not relying on systematic persuasion or has no idea what medicare is It's possible this ad relies on emotion rather than reason to persuade Foot-in-the-door technique A technique that involves a small request followed by a larger request Consistency Cognitive dissonance An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs Stereotyping The process by which people draw inferences about others based on their knowledge of the categories to which others belong Perceptual confirmation A phenomenon that occurs when observers perceive what they expect to perceive Self-fulfilling prophecy The tendency for people to cause what they expect to see Subtyping The tendency for people who are faced with disconfirming evidence to modify their stereotypes rather than abandon them. People tend to think women who play video games are the exception rather than the rule, but according to a study done by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), 40% of gamers are female. Attributions Inferences about the cause of a person's behavior Correspondence bias (Fundamental Attribution Error) The tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person's behavior was caused by the situation Actor-observer effect The tendency to make situational attributions for our own behaviors while making dispositional attributions for the identical behavior of others Why didn't he do very well on the test? he's lazy, he never takes anything seriously, he's not very bright, etc. dispositional attributions Why didn't you do very well on the test? I didn't get very much sleep, the room was noisy, the professor gives bad lectures, etc. situational attributions