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Sputnik

Earth & Space Science (11th grade)
by

Aiden Lile

on 3 October 2014

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Transcript of Sputnik

Sputnik I
October 4, 1957
The Soviet Union launches the worlds first satellite into the earths orbit and astonishes the world.
Sputnik weighed 183.9 lbs and it's diameter was 22.8 in.
The goal of sputnik was to get an object into the earths orbit and it mapped the surface of the planet
It took roughly 98 minutes to reach the earths low orbit
1957
1958
Explorer I
The sputnik was equipped with two radio transmitters and four antennas
The transmitters operated at 20.005 and 40.002 MHz
Launched on January 31, 1958 by the United States of America
Is the first satellite launched by the US and it was NASA's first project
It took only three months to make!
The explorers objective was to measure radiation levels in the earths atmosphere using a cosmic ray detector
The US also wanted to compete with the soviets and get their own satellite into orbit
The satellite weighed 30.8 lbs, was 80 in. long and had a 6.25 in. diameter
A quick note on NASA!
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was developed on October 1958 in desperation to compete with The Soviet Union
Has been the United States leading aerospace research organization since 1985!
1969
Apollo XI
Launched on July 16, 1969 by the United States of America
Was the first mission to put a man on the moon
The goal of the mission was to explore the moons surface
While on the moon, the men explored the area surrounding the lunar module
They took samples and extensively photographed the entire area around the lunar landing
The men deployed a solar wind composition experiment, a seismic experiment package, and a laser ranging retroreflector
1972
Sputnik II
Launched on November 3, 1957
Was the first shuttle to carry a living creature into space
That creature was a dog named Laika
Laika died a few hours after take off because of overheating and stress
R.I.P.
Pioneer X
March 2, 1972 the pioneer launches and becomes the first spacecraft to travel pass the asteroid belt
The Pioneer's mission was to directly observe Jupiter's surface and take pictures
The pioneer was designed by NASA and worked for over 30 years!
Sadly, the signal was lost in 2003
The pioneer measured Jupiter's magnetosphere, the radiation belts, the magnetic field, the atmosphere, and the interior
These measurements helped design the future spacecrafts that explored more of Jupiter
1975
Viking
The viking was launched on August 20, 1975 by NASA
It's objective was to "characterize the structure and composition of the atmosphere and surface", obtain footage and search for life on mars
The viking landed on Mars on July 20, 1976
The mission mapped the martian surface, analyzed the atmosphere, and took dirt samples that showed mars had water at one time
The mission also gave us information about mars volcanoes and lava tubes
Voyager
Voyager II was launched on August 20, 1977
Two weeks later the voyager I was launched, on September 5
The goal was to send the voyagers to Jupiter and Saturn
Although the Voyager I was launched second, it was scheduled to reach the targets first
After making some discoveries on Saturn and Jupiter, the voyagers mission was extended
Voyager II went on to explore Neptune and Uranus and from there the two space crafts have begun their mission to explore the suns outermost regions and beyond!
The voyagers only had about 70 kilobytes of memory!
On board the voyagers is a golden record that contains greetings in 55 languages and pieces from Bach, Beethoven and Chuck Berry
The voyagers are currently traveling through deep space
1977
Hubble
Launched on April 25, 1990
The first ever space telescope
Since its launch the Hubble telescope has had numerous repairs and modifications
The Hubble space telescope has allowed us to view a great number of things that otherwise would have been impossible to view
Contains an Advanced Camera for Surveys, Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, and a Wide Field Camera 3
1990
Ulysses
Launched October 6, 1990
Was a joint effort between the European Space Agency and NASA
The primary objective was to survey the environment above and below the suns poles, it did so for 18 years!
Made close to 3 orbits around the sun
Ulysses revealed the three-dimensional character of galactic cosmic radiation, energetic particles produced in solar storms and the solar wind
Discovered that the magnetic field leaving the Sun is balanced across latitudes
Also measured the interstellar dust particles and interstellar helium atoms in the solar system
Spacecraft Instruments:
1) BAM solar wind plasma experiment
2) GLG solar wind ion composition experiment
3) HED magnetic fields experiment
4) KEP energetic-particle composition/neutral gas experiment
5) LAN low-energy charged-particle composition/anisotropy experiment
6) SIM cosmic rays and solar particles experiment
7) STO radio/plasma waves experiment
8) HUS solar x-rays and cosmic gamma-ray bursts experiment
9) GRU cosmic dust experiment
Clementine
Launched January 25, 1994 as a joint effort between NASA and the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization
Clementines primary objective was to test sensors and spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment
It also had the task of making scientific observations of the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid Geographos
Observations included imaging at various wavelengths, laser ranging altimetry, and charged particle measurements
These observations were originally for the purposes of assessing the surface mineralogy of the Moon and Geographos and determining the size, shape, rotational characteristics, surface properties, and cratering statistics of Geographos.
After leaving lunar orbit, a malfunction in one of the on-board computers caused a thruster to fire out of control leaving the spacecraft spinning at about 80 RPM with no spin control
The spacecraft was no longer able to do tests of the asteroid but it remained in geocentric orbit and continued testing the spacecraft components until the end of its mission
Fast
Terra
Deep Impact
New Horizons
Artemis
Juno
Launched August 21, 1996
The primary goal of Fast is to study the Earth's aurora
It studies the aurora by taking high resolution "snapshots"
Instruments:
Electric Field Detector
Langmuir Probes
Search Coil Magnetometer
Ion Mass Spectrograph
Flux-gate Magnetometer
Electrostatic Analyzer
December 18, 1999 NASA launches an international Earth observation mission
Carrying instruments from Canada, Japan, and the United States
Primary objective is to answer the question "How is Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?”
"Terra collects data about the Earth’s bio-geochemical and energy systems using five sensors that observe the atmosphere, land surface, oceans, snow and ice, and energy budget."
Instruments:
ASTER, or Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer
CERES, or Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System
MISR, or Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer
MODIS, or Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer
MOPITT, or Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere
Launched January 25, 2005 by NASA
The objective is to study a comet first hand
The comet chosen was the Tempel 1
Instruments:
High Resolution Instrument (HRI)
Medium Resolution Instrument (MRI)
Impactor Targeting Sensor (ITS)
Launched January 19, 2006
NASA's project to study Pluto
Will reach it's destination within the decade
Instruments:
Ralph: Visible and infrared imager/spectrometer; provides color, composition and thermal maps.
Alice: Ultraviolet imaging spectrometer; analyzes composition and structure of Pluto's atmosphere and looks for atmospheres around Charon and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's).
REX: (Radio Science Experiment) Measures atmospheric composition and temperature; passive radiometer.
LORRI: (Long Range Reconnaissance Imager) telescopic camera; obtains encounter data at long distances, maps Pluto's far side and provides high resolution geologic data.
SWAP: (Solar Wind Around Pluto) Solar wind and plasma spectrometer; measures atmospheric "escape rate" and observes Pluto's interaction with solar wind.
PEPSSI: (Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation) Energetic particle spectrometer; measures the composition and density of plasma (ions) escaping from Pluto's atmosphere.
SDC: (Student Dust Counter) Built and operated by students; measures the space dust peppering New Horizons during its voyage across the solar system.
ARTEMIS stands for “Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun”
It is a project designed by NASA that reuses two in orbit spacecrafts from the earlier mission THEMIS
The data will provide scientists with new information about the moon's internal structure
Launched August 5, 2011 by NASA
The primary mission is to study Jupiter
It will determine how much water is in the atmosphere
It will look deep into the atmosphere to measure composition, temperature, cloud motions and other properties
It will map Jupiter's magnetic and gravity fields, revealing the planet's deep structure
It will also explore and study the magnetosphere near the planet's poles
Juno's Scientific Payload:
A gravity/radio science system (Gravity Science)
A six-wavelength microwave radiometer for atmospheric sounding and composition (MWR)
A vector magnetometer (MAG)
Plasma and energetic particle detectors (JADE and JEDI)
A radio/plasma wave experiment (Waves)
An ultraviolet imager/spectrometer (UVS)
An infrared imager/spectrometer (JIRAM
1994
1996
1999
2005
2006
2011
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