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Intensive Writing: Writing a Research Paper
Transcript of Intensive Writing: Writing a Research Paper
The next step and best way to organize thoughts after brainstorming is to create an outline. An outline is a general plan of the material that will be presented in the paper. An outline also demonstrates order of the topics, the relevance and importance of each topic, and shows the relationship between the various parts being presented in the research paper. Brainstorming: Brookfield, S. (2008). The Skillful Teacher, on Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom. (2 ed.). Jossey-Bass Inc Pub.
Galbraith, M. W., (2004). (3rd Ed)Adult learning methods a guide for effective instruction. Krieger Publishing Company Malabar, FL
Writing." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 26 Oct. 2012. Web. 01 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Writing>. Research: It is important that the learners are aware of how to find scholarly sources of information. A scholarly source is peer reviewed or published in a recognized scholarly source, like a journal or a university publisher. The instructor has the option(s) of inviting a librarian to speak to the students to demonstrate how to find sources and/or as mention previously, give the students the learning institution's link where research help is provided and/or show a video demonstration. Writing: Supporting Paragraphs: Conclusion: Work Cited: Documenting (Citing) Sources: Revising: The instructor should remind the students that revising takes practice and after writing the first draft or writing several drafts, it is ideal to take a short break to gain new perspective. Writing can be tiresome and the learners should being revision with fresh eyes. The purpose of revision is to reconsider and change or modify and is an ongoing process of rethinking the paper.
There are several stages of revision:
1) Reading the paper out loud -- Does the paper's contents flow well together logistically?
2) Spell and Grammar check
3) Give to someone else to review -- The paper needs to be viewed by new eyes...literally. Editing: It is important that the instructor notes that editing and revision go hand-in-hand. Both should be done several times before the final draft is submitted to the instructor. Editing is the process of correcting. In writing, spelling, grammar, tone, punctuation, sentence structure, word usages should all be reviewed by the writer and the peer(s) reading the paper during the revision and editing process.
It is important that after reading the supporting paragraph the editor/author determines if the paragraph supports the thesis statement. RECAP: QUESTIONS: Presented by:
Adult Education 6413
November 5, 2012 The definition of writing or to write is stated as "the representation of language. To communicate through script" (Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Writing). Writing is the primary basis upon which our learning, work and intellect are judged in the workplace, scholastically/academically, and in our communities. It makes the writer's thinking visible and therefore gives the writer a permanent and a portable voice. It's the foundation of literacy and equips the writer with the ability to communicate and participate effective in society. **Example of an outline format The drafting process: Learners now have to search various sources to find information on their chosen topic. The instructor should provide the students with techniques on using a research database in addition to introducing and instructing the students on how to use library resources to find information. Libraries have available resources such as the Internet, magazine files, books, newspaper articles, encyclopedias, periodicals, and search engines databases. **An example of database and research help provided by UMSL: http://www.umsl.edu/services/library/research-help/index.html The learners should begin their first rough draft based on the structure of their outline and research information they have collected. In this process of writing after brainstorming, creating an outline and thesis, the learner must begin building their body/supporting paragraphs. Supporting paragraphs make up the main body of a paper. The body is a group of sentences that work together to explain, illustrate, or provide evidence for a single supporting assertion (thesis). Normally, it is idea to have at least three supporting topics a research paper. Where Should You Start? In a class setting it is very important that the instructor begins explaining the process of writing with a discussion session. The instructor must first determine what type of research paper his/her learners will turn in. The three types of researcher papers are: descriptive (defining/describing a topic), comparative (comparing A to B), and analytical/persuasive (argumentative; taking side A or B).
In any aspect of writing it is important to begin finding a topic and ideas by brainstorming. Normally the instructor has a themed topic for discussion which is called a "guided discussion topic"(i.e. Adult Education, Presidential Debate, etc.). In the discussion session learners are allowed to engage in exploring different topics/sub-topics and perspectives to write about. In addition, as Brookfield noted, "Students learn to illustrate complex propositions, to think and speak metaphorically , and to use reasoning" (Brookfield 120-121). Discussion allows the learners the ability to develop structure for communicating ideas and meanings to others. The drafting process: (Cont.) The more knowledgeable the learners are about how to retrieve scholarly sources, the more equipped they will be to provide background information that is trustworthy and relevant to their topics. The drafting process: (Cont.) It should be noted to the learners that research will be the most time consuming process when writing a research paper. Finding and browsing background information requires excess amount of critical thinking and reading. In the book, "Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction", Michael Galbraith notes what critical reading provides: 1. Readers make explicit the assumptions authors hold about what constitutes legitimate knowledge and how such knowledge comes to be known.
2. Readers take alternative perspectives on the knowledge being offered so that this knowledge comes to be seen as culturally constructed.
3. Readers undertake positive and negative appraisal of the grounds for, and expression of, this knowledge.
4. Readers analyze commonly held adult educational ideas for the extent to which they oppose democratic values. (Galbraith 356). A body paragraph begins with a topic sentence that is backed up with facts, details, quotes, and examples. Its purpose is to provide more entailed information to educate the reader of the paper about the author's topic. In addition, the body provides supporting information related to the thesis statement provided in the beginning of the paper. When writing the learner must be conscience of the information being provided to flow well together. Key points to remember when instructing on how to write the research paper are:
UNITY: The supporting paragraphs should back up the thesis statement
SUPPORT: The learner should provide at least three supporting points for the thesis with SPECIFIC evidence for each supporting statement
(in the body of the paper)
COHERENCE: The students must determine that the paper has an illusive method of organization of the subject matter (i.e. An effective title,
introduction, supporting paragraphs and conclusion). Transitions from one idea to the next should flow well and clarity of
sentences, spelling and grammar should all be reviewed before submitting the final draft. As the learners complete the rough draft of their papers, it is imperative to emphasize the relevance of a good conclusion. A conclusion is the last main division of a discourse for the writer. It sums up the main points of the paper and is a clear statement of last thoughts, decisions, and outcomes on the written subject matter. A work cited page is an important aspect of the paper for the reader. A citation, or reference, is a line of text that uniquely identifies a source. Citations are significant, because they serve to identify and direct whereto find the reliable sources. APA and MLA are two common formats.
APA is the documentation style recommended by the American Psychological Association and is used in many social science and and related courses (anthropology, education, linguistics, political science, psychology and sociology). MLA is the documentation method recommended by the Modern Language Association and is used in the humanities--philosophy, history, literature, rhetoric and communication.
The instructor of the course will identify the format preferred when instructing on the requirements of the paper. **Example of editing marks used with written correction OR electronically you have the "Track Changes" option available for edits. The instructional techniques used in this model: Lecture
Video & Tutorial