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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Transcript of Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Born to real estate giants James Roosevelt and Sara Ann Delano Roosevelt on January 30, 1882, Franklin Delano Roosevelt grew up in a wealthy family. He was born at Springwood, in the Hudson River Valley in New York State. He had one sibling, an older half brother named James Roosevelt.
The Roosevelt family home in Springwood, New York
Franklin was educated by tutors until the age of
14, when he was enrolled in the Groton School for Boys in Massachusetts. This was a tough experience for Franklin, as he was a boy who liked education and most boys of this age are very into sports rather than education. Nevertheless, he graduated from Groton in 1900.
Franklin and his graduating class at the Groton School for Boys
May 1, 2014
After graduating from Groton in
1900, Franklin was determined
to do something with his life. He
entered Harvard University, and
received a BA degree in history in
only three years. Following Harvard,
Franklin studied law at New York's
Columbia University. While he was
enrolled there, he met and married
his distant cousin Elanor Roosevelt,
niece of former President Theodore Roosevelt. They were married on March 17, 1905. Following this, Franklin passed the bar exam at Columbia in 1907, but left without getting a degree.
Franklin and Elanor shortly after their
Following Harvard, Franklin practiced law at a New York City law firm. However, Roosevelt decided to run for state congress and was elected to the New York State senate as a democrat in 1910. During this time, he and his wife Eleanor had six children, and five of these six survived their infancy. Their names were Anna, born in 1906, James, born in 1907, Franklin, who died later that year was born in 1909, and Elliott, born in 1910. Roosevelt was again elected to the state senate in 1912, and
he supported Democrat Woodrow Wilson at the Democratic National Convention. Woodrow rewarded Franklin's support with a position in his cabinet. He was appointed the Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1913, and he served until 1920. The experience he gained during this tenure, which happened to be during World War I, gave him the experience necessary to serve as Commander-in-Chief during World War II. During this time, he had two more children, Franklin Jr. in 1914 and John in 1916.
Franklin holding baby Anna
Because of his success in naval affairs, Roosevelt was nominated as the vice presidential candidate for the Democrats in 1920. However, him and his presidential candidate James Cox were defeated by Republican Warren Harding in the race for presidency. Then, in the year
1921, while vacationing with his family in New Brunswick, Franklin contracted poliomyelitis, more widely known as polio. Despite extreme efforts to combat this disease, Roosevelt lost the use of his legs for the rest of his life.
Paralyzed Franklin interacting
with one of his children.
Back To Politics
After some encouragement, Franklin returned to
politics in 1928. He was elected the Governor of
New York State in 1928. Then, as the great
depression began to show itself, Franklin showed
great efforts to stabilize the economy of New York.
He was reelected governor of New York in 1930.
Following his reelection, Franklin began his campaign
for presidency. He won the democratic nomination in
1932, and feverishly campaigned against Republican Herbert Hoover, who was looking for reelection. His enthusiasm, charm, and activism helped him defeat Hoover. Calling for governmental intervention in the economy, Franklin Delano Roosevelt became the 32nd President of the United States. He was inaugurated on March 4, 1933
The only thing we have to fear is
At his inaugural address, on March
4, 1933, amidst a major bank run,
FDR, as he was often refered to as,
comforted the country by stating
"...let me assert my firm belief that
the only thing we have to fear is fear
itself..." This speech showed the
country that the president was
ready to help the nation
through the hard times.
The GREAT DEPRESSION
Roosevelt had several vice presidents throughout his tenure as president, however at this time his vice president was John Nance Garner. Immediately following his election, Roosevelt began taking actions against the Great Depression. In what now referred to as the "First 100 days", Roosevelt worked with congress to pass laws that tried to better the economy and reverse the Great Depression. In these first 100 days, Roosevelt set up agencies such as the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, or the AAA. The AAA supported farm prices and made it easier for farmers to make a living. He also set up the Civilian Conservation Corps, or the CCC. The CCC set up jobs for the unemployed, allowing them to support their families. Roosevelt also helped set up several agencies that insured bank deposits, regulated the stock market, and provided food for those who could not afford it. While these relief efforts did negatively effect the budget of the United States, his efforts received mostly positive acclaim. In 1935, Roosevelt and his newly elected congress created the WPA or Works Program Administration, an agency that provided jobs to artists, musicians, and writers. Unemployment went down almost 15 percent during Franklin's time as president.
After four successful years as president, it was time for Roosevelt to begin his reelection campaign. In 1936, mostly because of his victories against the Great Depression, Roosevelt defeated republican Alf Landon, winning his reelection by a landslide. His vice president was once again John Nance Garner.
In 1939, troops led by German leader Adolf Hitler invaded Poland. Two days after this evasion, France and the United Kingdom declared war on Germany. This kicked off a chain of events that created one of the bloodiest wars in the history of humanity.
After this attack, FDR stated that although the United States was currently neutral in the war, he did not expect them to sit and watch the Nazi's take over Europe. Then, in 1940, less than one year into the war, France fell to the German Army. This was a turning point for the Americans, as they did remain neutral at this point, but began a draft and started manufacturing weapons and other wartime supplies. This stabilized a still damaged economy.
War was, however, very soon to come to the USA.
THE EMPIRE OF
an ordinary day at
Pearl Harbor Naval
base in Oahu, Hawaii.
However, at 7:58 am
Hawaii time, navy personnel saw over one
hundred aircraft flying towards the base. They
began firing, sinking several battleships, destroyers, cruisers, and destroyed many aircraft. Over two thousand American sailors
were killed during this surprise attack.
J Following this attack, Japan
declared war on the US
AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR
Soon after the attack on Pearl
Harbor, the Nazi Germany and Italy declared war on the United States.
Following this, the United States declared war on them and on Japan. Now, the United States
was a full participant in World
War II. On January 1, 1942, FDR
met with British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill. These men discussed a plan for the war. They
formed a war alliance between
the U.S., Britain, China and the Soviet Union. They also discussed Churchill's plans to invade northern Africa, and
their plans to attack Germany and the new Vinchy France, who was allied with the Nazis. Finally, the two men discussed their plans to attack Japan and reinforce the Chinese forces. The meeting between the two ended with the President dispatching American forces to attack Japan.
a date which will live in
On December 8, 1941, one day
after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt made a speech before congress, urging them to make a declaration of war against Japan. In a very moving speech, Franklin stated "Yesterday,
December 7, 1941, a date which
will live in infamy..." Congress
declared war within an hour
of this speech.
everyone makes mistakes
Now, for a dark time in Roosevelt's presidency. Spurred by the attacks on Pearl Harbor and the Niihau Incident, which was when a Japanese pilot had crashed his plane during the attack on Pearl Harbor, three Japanese-Americans helped the pilot get away from American forces. Franklin decided to take all Japanese men and women in the United States without citizenship and their children, and move them into internment camps. This was done in an executive order, Executive Order 9066, issued by Roosevelt on February 19, 1942. These camps had very harsh conditions, and the people there were not guilty of any wrongdoings, and therefore should not have been kept there. The government later apologized for their actions. However, for many it was too little, too late, as they had already wasted years of their lives in these camps. Some Germans, Italians and Jewish refugees were also forced into these camps. Over 122,000 people of Japanese descent were relocated.
An internment camp
A relocation notice
In the year 1940, Franklin had finished his second term. Usually, a president only will serve for two terms. However, this law, which we know today as the 22nd Amendment, was not passed until after FDR's presidency. Therefore, as the a worldwide conflict was about to erupt, and at this time the American people wanted to stay out of it, the Democrats decided to nominate the now widely acclaimed Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In his campaign, he opposed the war, saying to some new recruits at one point "you boys are not going to be sent into any foreign war" Again using his charm, wit, and now the experience of two terms serving as president, Roosevelt once again defeated his competition by a land slide, this time it being Republican Wendell Willkie. Roosevelt and his new vice president, Henry A. Wallace beat Willkie 449 - 82.
In the beginning of 1942, a series of meetings
between the four most powerful allies, the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and Republic of China took place. At this meeting, a strategy to win the war was worked out. Stalin of the USSR, Churchill of GB, FDR of the USA, and Chiang Kai-shek of China decided that Soviet and Chinese troops should concentrate on the defense of China and the attack of Japan, while American and British troops were to focus in the defense of Western Europe and the campaign against Nazi Germany. They also concluded that the USA would be the center of manufacturing for the remainder of the war effort, shipping out over fifty billion dollars worth of supplies and weaponry to their allies.
TIME FOR ACTION
After several months of using the strategy laid
out by anti-german leaders earlier that year, President Roosevelt received word from the Soviet Union and China that their forces were in need of reinforcements, and if they did not come they would likely fall to the advancing Japanese.
Franklin heeded the warning, and ordered the American forces to assist the Soviets and Chinese on the Eastern front of the war. This was successful, and the Japanese offensive was stopped, at least for the time being. Following this, the allies began their invasions of Morocco and Algeria in November 1942. The allies held another conference, inviting Stalin but receiving a rejection to their invitation.
THE ALLIED OFFENSIVE
After a few more months of fighting, allied
troops made it into Sicily, Italy in July of 1943. They then took over Italy, leaving Germany weaker and much more vulnerable. The allies soon realized that Soviet troops were taking the blunt of the German offensive. Roosevelt attempted to schedule a one on one meeting with Stalin, however, Stalin was forced to cancel. Then, Allied troops began bombing the cities in Germany. Finally, in 1944, the Allies attacked Germany on D-Day, successfully defeating the Germans and practically ending World War II.
While World War II was raging on, Roosevelt passed several laws having to do with domestic issues. However, war does help the economy, and because of the draft, unemployment rates fell to about one percent. Roosevelt and his government passed several policies raising taxes in order to pay for the war. Throughout these four years, most of Roosevelt's and the rest of the government was centered around the war, and therefore little was done back at home.
Unemployment rates, 1910 - 1960
Following World War II, there was a lot to be
done. Peace treaties had to be negotiated, land
given back to its rightful owners, among many
things. In the beginning of 1945, Roosevelt,
Churchill, and Stalin all met in Yalta, a part of
Crimea to discuss postwar arrangements. This
would be the final meeting of the three before
Roosevelt's death. At this meeting, they discussed
the demilitarization and denazification of
Germany, the reestablishment of the French
government, the status of Poland, the war on Japan, and the status of the Soviet Union in the United Nations. After this meeting, the Soviets
were to attack the Empire of Japan, until it surrendered. Finally, on August 15, 1945, the
Empire of Japan surrendered to the Allies. On 24 October 1945 , the Allies formed an official alliance, known as the United Nations. The UN, as
it commonly referred to, still exists today.
THE UNITED NATIONS
FDR, Churchill, and Stalin
at the Yalta Conference
In 1944, as World War II was coming
to a close, President Roosevelt's third
term as president was up. He ran for
president once more, this time running
with Harry S. Truman against Republican
Thomas Dewey. The Democrats, stressing
Roosevelt's accomplishments throughout
his first three terms, defeated Dewey in
what was another landslide victory.
DECLINE AND DEATH
Following the meeting at Yalta, Roosevelt was diagnosed with several diseases, including heart failure. This was likely caused by the stress of office. On his way to speak at the founding conference of the United Nations, while preparing for the trip at the Little White House, in Warm Springs, Georgia, Franklin declared "I have a terrific pain in the back of my head", and suddenly slumped forward and stopped moving. He died on at 3:35 p.m, on April 12, 1945, at the age of 62. His death was attributed to stroke.
FDR is honored
by being on the
Franklin D. Roosevelt,
one of our nations
As Roosevelt was a very important factor in World War II,
and because of his accomplishments as President of the United States, a very special memorial was created to remember Franklin. The proposal for a way to remember Franklin had been around since the time of his death, in fact, he was asked on several occasions about how he wanted to be remembered. However, it took until 1974 for a design proposal to be accepted by Congress. Unfortunately, the money to build this monument was not approved by Congress until 1994, twenty years after the acceptance of the design proposal. A memorial containing five water areas, several statues sculpted by world renowned sculptors, and several rooms was dedicated by President Bill Clinton on May 2, 1997. The site is part of the National Mall. This memorial received some controversy, as the statues of Franklin portray him in his wheelchair, however, in life he tried not to be seen in his wheelchair as he considered it a weakness. In addition to this memorial, FDR has a presidential library, and is the first president to have one build. This library, however, was built under his order, in 1939.
Born January 30, 1882, in Hyde Park, New York, Franklin Delano Roosevelt served as the thirty second president of the USA.
He served from March 4, 1933 until his death, on April 12, 1945.
Roosevelt was a democrat and his state was New York.
Roosevelt had three different vice presidents during his tenure as President. These were John Nance Garner IV, from 1933 - 1941, Scenery Agard Wallace, from 1941 - 1945, and finally Harry S. Truman in 1945.
Roosevelt lead the United States out of the Great Depression, and also through World War II.
During World War II, Roosevelt negotiated war treaties and alliances, as well as holding strategic meetings with the leaders of our allies.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt died of a stroke in Warm Springs, Georgia at around 3:00 pm on April 12, 1945
"Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum." Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014.
"Franklin D. Roosevelt." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2014. <http://www.biography.com/people/franklin-d-roosevelt-9463381#awesm=~oCK04opQ45YSYI>.
"Franklin D. Roosevelt." The White House. The White House, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt>.
"Franklin D. Roosevelt." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2014. <http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/franklin-d-roosevelt>.
'American President: Franklin D. Roosevelt." American President: Franklin Delano Roosevelt: A Life in Brief. The Miller Center, n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. <http://millercenter.org/president/fdroosevelt/essays/biography/1>.
"10 Things You May Not Know About the Roosevelts." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 20 Dec. 2012. Web. 01 May 2014. <http://www.history.com/news/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-roosevelts>.
Fandex, Presidents, Mexico, 2010
Smith, Jean Edward. FDR. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2008. Print.
The seal of Great Britain
The seal of the Soviet Union
The seal of the United States
The seal of the Republic of China
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a strong, selfless and courageous figure, as well as a faithful leader. He lead the country through tough economic times, fearlessly petitioning Congress to pass laws, making inspirational speeches to the People, as well as being a great father to several children. He lead our country through one of the bloodiest and harshest war every fought, and he came out the victor. He worked so hard to help our great nation that it literally killed him. He is an inspiration to me, and hopefully to others. His immortal words, "...the only thing we have to fear is fear itself..." reminds us that the fear only makes things worse. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, our 32nd President, will be remembered as one of our nations greatest presidents, acting as a source of hope during one of the most hopeless times in human history, World War II.
THE FALL OF NAZI GERMANY
RAISNG THE FLAG OVER IWO JIMA
"Hail To The Chief"
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"Stars and Stripes Forever"
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FDR enjoyed collecting stamps.
In his 1944, election, Roosevelt campaigned against Thomas Dewey. Surprisingly, Dewey was his neighbor, living less than 30 miles away.
FDR's wife, Elanor, was the first first lady to hold regular press conferences. In fact, she held over three hundred and fifty while she held the position.
The Roosevelt family was very widely known for keeping marriages within the family. In fact, in addition to Franklin and Elanor being cousins, his parents, James and Sarah were cousins as well!