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Presenters: Ashik Rajkoomar Amin Khan James Twining

James Twining

on 2 October 2012

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Ashik Rajkoomar
Amin Khan
James Twining What is motivation?
Workplace realities
Theories of employee motivation
Case study
Conclusion Contents Motivation is a force that energises behaviour, gives direction to behaviour, and underlies the tendency to persist.

This definition recognises that in order to achieve goals, individuals must be sufficiently stimulated and energetic, must have a clear focus on what is to be achieved, and must be willing to commit their energy for a long enough period of time to realise their aim. - Mitchell 1982. So what does that actually mean? What are the theories behind how we look at motivation? CONTENT THEORIES OF
NEEDS THEORY The need for power The need for achievement
The need for affiliation "Individuals needs exist in
a hierarchy consisting of physiological needs" Growth Abraham Harold Maslow Physiological needs

Safety needs The ERG theory is an extension of Maslow theory.
He classified needs into these categories: McClelland's theory suggests that individuals learn needs from their culture. The primary needs in this theory are the need for affiliation. MOTIVATION FACTOR Fredrick Herzberg’s and his associates (1959) were the first to identify the factors in the work setting that affect employees ‘job attitude’... "HYGIENE FACTOR" Hygiene factor mainly focus on work and organisation environment.
This Hygiene factor includes:
1. Organisation.
2. Its policies and administration
3. The kind of supervision
4. Working conditions
5. Interpersonal relations
6. Salary
7. Job security Frederick Herzberg FINAL THOUGHT
What can you do tomorrow, as managers, to boost motivation in your workplace? Case Study Results and discussion What does motivation in the workplace look like? Theory X and Theory Y: What are they? Two theories combined that look at what motivates workers Theory X is where managers believe you get the best out of your employees by giving them more money or threatening with performance reviews, termination of employment etc. Theory Y is where employees are more likely to be motivated in tasks they are interested, promote creativity or contribute to a cause greater than themselves.

"Under Theory Y, managers assume employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play and therefore the average person can learn to accept, and even seek, responsibility" - Robbins, Judge, 2011. Theory X: This works in mechanical tasks with a narrow focus and clear parameters. So the higher the pay, the better the reward. The "carrots and sticks work".

But it is NOT okay if the tasks involves using your brain to "think outside the square". In some cases, incentivising with extra money can lead to a WORSE performance. 1) Motivation at an individual level is directly related to our organisational goals.
2) As Managers, we can't achieve our goals without employees, so we need to make sure they are pulling in the same direction.
3) Productive workplace - "Quality of effort is linked to motivation"
4) Motivated employees think, feel and behave positively.
5) Employees feel safe to express ideas.
6) Employees are rewarded for good performance
7) Different people are motivated by different things. What are the key factors in motivation? Job fit
Reward and recognition (extrinsic and intrinsic)
Opportunities to progress
Treat your workers fairly (fair wages, take
money out as a factor in motivation).
Buy-in from employees in company goals
Self doubt*. Not believing they can do the job at hand
Not giving team members a chance to be creative.
Poor job fit or not giving employees the skills they need to do the job.
Not having clear defined goals.
Not being treated fairly (pay equity).
Poor workplace culture or environment.
Not rewarding good performance.
Not rewarding employees in the best way possible. BUT BE WARNED Process Theories Survey of motivation sentiment at a retailer in Australasia.
Managers implemented a pay-for-performance plan for employees to boost results.
The study exposed the benefits and negatives of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and pay equality. Theory x (extrinsic motivation)
Retailer pays a performance incentive payment (bonus) 
Incentive payment is designed to reward people for achieving pre-established goals. Theory Y (intrinsic motivation)
Other non-pay benefits:
Staff discount
Training and new skills
Flexible working hours (87 percent) of employees were neither “very satisfied”
nor “very dissatisfied;
Job satisfaction;
A mean job satisfaction score was
calculated for each individual an overall
job satisfaction score was determined. Motivation and pay satisfaction:
The company found that there was a negative association between pay satisfaction and extrinsic motivation.

Motivation and job satisfaction:
The company found that pay satisfaction and intrinsic motivation have a positive association with job satisfaction, whereas extrinsic motivation has a negative association with job satisfaction. Pay satisfaction Theories at work "Motivation represents those psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of voluntary activities that are goal oriented." (Mitchell, 1982) Workplace realities "We are intrinsically motivated when we are doing an activity for ourselves, because we enjoy it" - Leher. "Intensity, direction and persistence" Robbins and Judge, Essentials of Organizational Behaviour, 11th edition, 2012. What are the barriers to motivation? Vroom's expectancy theory Outcome Effort (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Performance = Motivation Expectancy: Perceived probability that effort will lead to good performance. Instrumentality: Perceived probability that good performance will lead to desired outcomes Valence: Values of expected outcomes to the individual Adapted from http://faculty.css.edu/dswenson/web/OB/VIEtheory.html "Under theory X, managers believe employees inherently dislike work and must therefore be directed or coerced into performing it" - Robbins, Judge, 2011. "Employee motivation:a Malaysian perspective" International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol .18 Iss:4 pp.344-362 Leadership (think William Wallace) - Instill positivity.
Understanding what motivates your workers is vital. Are they engaged?
Giving them the opportunity to use their skills, get better at what they do and progress is key.
Several different motivation theories that you can link to different motivation incentives. One size does not fit all. We need to have that conversation about what motivates our employees and are they in the right environment to be "motivated". 1. Senay, Albarracin, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Motivating Goal-Directed Behavior Through Introspective Self-Talk.
2. The effect of the workplace on motivation and demotivation of construction professionals. Guinevere L. Smithers & Derek H. T. Walker 1 2 Social needs
Esteem needs Self actualisation
needs Existence Relatedness Psychological needs
Safety needs
Social needs
Esteem needs
Self actualisation needs Existence - Relatedness - Growth The need for power
The need for achievement
The need for affiliation "JOB FACTOR" Job factor considers:
1. Recognition
2. Achievement
3. Possibility of growth
4. Advancement
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