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Late Modern English (1800)
Transcript of Late Modern English (1800)
(New word in a language)
During this time the English language had no significant changes, but the industrial and scientific advances created a need for
to describe the new creations and discoveries .
Oxygen, protein, nuclear, vaccine, Lens, refraction, electron, chromosome, chloroform, caffeine, centigrade, bacteria, chronometer, claustrophobia, train, engine, reservoir, pulley, combustion, piston, hydraulic, condenser, electricity, telephone, telegraph, lithograph and camera.
Colonialism and the British Empire
The New World
British colonialism had begun as early as the 16th Century, but gathered speed and momentum between the 18th and 20th Century, at the height of the British Empire Britain ruled almost one quarter of the earth’s surface, from Canada to Australia to India to the Caribbean to Egypt to South Africa to Singapore.
The increase in world trade in general during this time, led to the introduction of many foreign loanwords into English.
Pyjamas, thug, cot, jungle, loot, shampoo, candy.
The English colonization of North America had begun as early 1600.
Jamestown, Virginia was founded in 1607.
The Pilgrim Fathers settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620.
The new land was described by one settler as “a hideous and desolate wilderness, full of wild beasts and wild men”.
Half of the settlers were dead within weeks of their arrival, unaccustomed to the harsh winter.
The settlement of America served as the route of introduction for many Native American words into the English language.
Immigration into America was a million Italians, a million Austro-Hungarians, half a million Russians and tens of thousands each from many other countries.
The colonization of Canada proceeded quite separately from that of America
Saturday, July 19, 2014
During 18th and early 19th Century
Industrial and Scientific Revolution
The harnessing of steam to drive heavy machinery.
Development of the new materials, techniques and equipment in a range of manufacturing industries.
The emergence of new means of transportation (steamships, railways) .
In 1798 Nicholas Louis Robert, patented the paper machine.
The large scale production of chemicals.
In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, patented a chemical process for making cement
The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport infrastructure.
As the settlers (including a good proportion of Irish and Scots, with their own distinctive accents and usages of English) pushed westward, new terms were indeed introduced, and these pioneers were much less reticent to adopt native words or, indeed, to make up their own. The journals of Lewis and Clark, written as they explored routes to the west coast in 1804-6, contain over 500 native words (mainly animals, plants and food). The wild “outlands” west of the Mississippi River gave us the word outlandish to describe its idiosyncratic characters.
armadillo, alligator, canyon, cannibal, guitar, mosquito, mustang, ranch, rodeo, stampede, tobacco, tornado and vigilante
(lift/elevator, tap/faucet, bath/tub, curtains/drapes, biscuit/cookie and boot/trunk are just some of the better known ones
horror, terror, superior, emperor and governor were originally spelled as horrour, terrour, superiour, emperour and governour
Late Modern English (1800)
American south and the islands of the West Indies were mainly from a region of West Africa rich in hundreds of different languages, and most were superb natural linguists, often speaking anywhere between three and six African languages fluently. Due to the deliberate practice of shipping slaves of different language backgrounds together (in an attempt to avoid plots and rebellions), the captives developed their own English-based pidgin language, which they used to communicate with the largely English-speaking sailors and landowners, and also between themselves.
Some distinctively Australian terms were originally old English words which largely died out outside of Australia (e.g. cobber, digger, pom, dinkum, walkabout, tucker, dunny).
British settlement in South Africa began in earnest in 1820, and nearly half a million English-speaking immigrants moved there during the last quarter of the 19th
English was made the official language in 1822 and, as in Australia, a distinctive homogeneous accent developed over time, drawing from the various different groups of settlers.
Britain´s Other Colonies